Invest in manufacturing for competitive, sustainable, European transport industries

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 5: Invest in ‘Made-in-Europe’ manufacturing (14.9%)

Efficient processing methods, increased R&D funding for sustainable battery development, support for EV and battery manufacturing, and refurbishment or manufacturing of zero-emission trains are vital for advancing the e-mobility industry in Europe, promoting sustainability, innovation, and economic growth.

Share of investment needs dedicated to manufacturing

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Manufacturing Priorities


Research & Development

EV Manufacturing

Battery Manufacturing

Zero Emission Trains Refurbishment

Zero Emission Trains Manufacturing

  1. Processing

Efficient and sustainable processing methods are integral to the preparation of raw materials for manufacturing components central to the emobility industry, such as batteries. This encompasses transforming raw materials – via various processes – into the specific forms required for producing batteries and other components. Ensuring the environmental responsibility of these processes is paramount for establishing a stable and ethical supply chain for the EV sector.

  1. Research and Development

Funding is essential to advance battery R&D for e-mobility. Transitioning away from per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is imperative for achieving full sustainability and futureproofing the industry. R&D funding, particularly for PFAS alternatives and battery development, is crucial for driving innovation and improving environmental performance. Strategic investment in R&D to consolidate European technology champions will enhance the competitiveness of European industries in the global market.

  1. Support for EV & 22. Battery Manufacturing

The development of battery production is crucial for reducing European industry’s dependence on Asia and the USA. Additionally, it presents an opportunity to create attractive employment opportunities. Supporting the growth of battery manufacturing not only strengthen Europe’s industrial base but also fosters innovation and economic growth. By investing in EV and battery manufacturing, Europe can become a leader in sustainable transportation and create a booming ecosystem of green technologies. In addition, it offers an opportunity to create attractive employment opportunities.

  1. Zero-Emission Trains: Refurbishment or 24. Manufacturing

The lack of rolling stock in Europe presents a significant barrier to expansion, particularly for new market entrants and operators seeking to launch innovative rail services. Refurbishing, retrofitting and manufacturing new rolling stock that meets the evolving needs of passengers, such as comfortable night trains and high-quality internet connectivity, is essential for accelerating behavioural change and promoting the widespread adoption of zero-emission trains. It is worth mentioning that the European Smart and Sustainable Mobility Strategy rail objectives are set at doubling by 2030 and tripling by 2050 high-speed rail traffic and increasing by 50% by 2030 and doubling by 2050 rail freight traffic. Achieving these ambitious goals, which are interlinked with the completion of the EU TEN-T rail network and the EU 2040 emissions reduction target, will require a considerable increase in the EU’s production capacity of (very) high-speed and freight rolling stock by 2050.

Investin circularity for competitive, sustainable, European transport industries

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 4: Invest to create a circularity value chain (10.0%)

Investing in recycling, urban mining, second-life batteries, and repairability is key for resource sustainability and circular economy in Europe, necessitating coordinated efforts and incentives for efficiency and environmental benefits.

Share of investment needs dedicated to circularity

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Circularity Priorities


Minin, Remining & Urban miness

Second-Life of batteriest


  1. Recycling

Investing in integrated recycling and repurposing facilities, in order to collect, dismantle and recover valuable metals from these sources, is essential for reducing reliance on primary mining and enhancing resource sustainability. By prioritising development of recycling infrastructure, Europe can establish a robust supply chain for critical metals and promote circular economy principles in the battery industry, ultimately contributing to the continent’s energy transition goals. Developing the EU’s recycling capabilities is paramount to retaining valuable materials within Europe and reducing dependency on imports. Incentivising the colocation of battery manufacturing and recycling facilities can streamline material flows, minimise environmental impact and use resources more efficiently.

  1. Mining, Remining and Urban Mines

Europe possesses a valuable resource in its so-called ‘urban mines’. These include used batteries and waste materials, which can be effectively leveraged to secure essential metals for battery production.

  1. Second-Life Batteries and 18. Repairability

Maximising the lifespan of batteries is essential for addressing the limited availability of raw materials within the EU. Embracing second-life battery programmes and implementing robust repairability requirements for both batteries and EVs can extend their usefulness and promote a thriving second-hand market. By incentivising reuse and repair of batteries and vehicles, Europe can reduce waste, lower its environmental footprint and unlock economic opportunities in the circular economy.

Investing in off-road infrastructures to enable the Green Deal

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 3 : Off-road Infrastructures (14.5%)

Investment in electrifying the rail network, establishing multimodal hubs, enhancing public transport, and upgrading harbors’ electricity infrastructure is vital for advancing Europe’s sustainability goals and improving transportation efficiency, necessitating significant financial commitments and strategic planning.

Share of investment needs dedicated to off-road infrastructures

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Off-road Infrastructures Priorities

Rail Network

Multimodal Hubs

Public Transport


  1. Rail Network & 12. Multimodal Hubs

The electrification of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) rail network by 2030, 2040 and 2050 presents a significant infrastructure challenge; one that will require substantial investments. Unfortunately, such investment in rail infrastructure has been sorely lacking over the past two decades. To address this, increased investment is imperative, with priority for three key areas. First, maintenance of existing infrastructure is paramount for ensuring optimal track conditions, enabling higher speeds and improving services. Second, upgrading existing network infrastructure – including implementing the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) signalisation and addressing bottlenecks – are crucial for enhancing efficiency and capacity. As acknowledged by former Italian Prime Minister Enrico Letta in his report “The future of the Single Market”, massive investments are needed to support the establishment of a comprehensive, pan-European high-speed rail network, “seamlessly linking all EU capitals and major urban centres”, with the aim “to significantly elevate rail’s role in long-distance passenger transportation, aiming to capture more than 50% of the market share”. The achievement of this initiative is presented as “a cornerstone in the EU’s journey towards enhanced connectivity, economic growth, and environmental sustainability, underscoring its profound importance for the future of the European Union”. According to the latest analysis by Institut Rousseau, an annual investment of 47 billion euros between 2024 and 2030 is required for the development of rail infrastructures to complete the TEN-T core network.

  1. Public Transport

Public transport – including urban rail infrastructure such as metros, trams and light rail vehicles – has a pivotal role to play in achieving Europe’s climate objectives. These systems combine high capacity, energy efficiency and safety with minimal land use, making them indispensable components of sustainable mobility. The revised TEN-T Regulation mandates that 430 major cities along the network develop Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) to promote zero- and low-emission mobility. Accordingly, there must be adequate funding allocated to support alternative fuel infrastructure solutions for urban rail, ensuring that charging infrastructure is also available at key locations such as terminuses and bus stops as well as at depots. In fact, the new TEN-T mandates that airports with an annual passenger traffic volume of more than 12 million passengers shall be connected to the TEN-T railway network, including the high-speed network, allowing for long distance rail services.

  1. Harbours

Upgrading maritime and inland port grids, along with their connections to the national grid, is essential for powering Shore-Side Electricity (SSE) infrastructure in European ports. Starting with ferry, container and cruise ship terminals by 2025, and extending to all other terminals by 2035, SSE infrastructure will ease the transition to cleaner maritime transportation. By prioritising investments in port electrification, Europe can reduce emissions from the shipping sector and promote sustainable port operations, in alignment with its climate objectives.

Investing in charging infrastructures to enable the Green Deal

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 2 : Charging Infrastructures (14.5%)

Investment in high-power charging infrastructure for HDVs, depot charging infrastructure for HDVs and buses, LDV charging infrastructure, urban charging networks, and residential charging solutions is essential for enabling the widespread adoption of electric vehicles and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Europe, requiring significant investment and regulatory support.

Share of investment needs dedicated to charging infrastructures

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Charging Infrastructures Priorities

High-Power Charging Infrastructure for HDVs

Depot Charging Infrastructures for HDVs and Buses

Charging Infrastructures for LDVs

Charging Infrastructures in Urban Areas

Residential Charging

  1. High-Power Charging Infrastructure for HDVs

HPC infrastructure along motorway networks is critical for facilitating the transition to electric HDVs. While the available solutions are technically mature, it will require significant investment to kickstart the transformation. By prioritising the installation of HPC stations, Europe can ensure compliance with regulatory requirements (notably AFIR)  and substantially reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector. Public money must be directed towards meeting the real needs of drivers and fleets, which is to be able to charge during rest times.

  1. Depot Charging Infrastructures for HDVs and Buses

Depot charging plays a vital role in electrifying trucks and buses, as a significant portion of these vehicles return to depots at the end of each day. Europe should explore opportunities for local depot-based renewable energy production support sustainable charging solutions. Depot charging infrastructure will both reduce emissions and enhance energy resilience.

  1. Charging Infrastructures for LDVs

Overcoming barriers, such as high purchase prices and insufficient availability of charging points, is crucial for the widespread adoption of electric LDVs. This will require comprehensive investments to ensure adequate charging infrastructure coverage both nationally and regionally.

  1. Charging Infrastructures in Urban Areas

Urban areas need a greater density of charging networks to meet the growing demand for electric vehicles, particularly among residents without access to private parking spaces. Public charging points are pivotal in enabling urban dwellers to switch to electric transportation.

  1. Residential Charging

The residential sector is central to decarbonising the LDV fleet, as a majority of charging events take place at private residences. Furthermore, the installation of a controllable charging station is the most economical solution for the customer, the most energy-efficient for the grid, and promotes off-peak/super-off-peak charging. However, retrofitting existing buildings and electrical installations to accommodate charging points requires significant investment. Europe should assist with the renovations required to ensure widespread access to residential charging infrastructure, and support consumers in purchasing charging points. In addition, financial support for building-related costs – such as electrical upgrades and grid connections – is essential for encouraging the widespread adoption of electric vehicles in residential settings.

A Comprehensive Roadmap for V2X Integration in Europe

Energy & Infrastructures

A Comprehensive Roadmap for V2X Integration in Europe

The paper outlines enablers and barriers concerning bidirectional charging systems, clarifies key barriers, highlights ongoing efforts to mitigate them, and underscores the critical need for concerted and regulatory actions to achieve the transformative potential of V2X integration.

Download PDF here

Electric Vehicles (EVs) both pose particular challenges and present promising opportunities for the energy system; they mark a pivotal moment in the evolution of transportation and energy sectors. With the increased adoption of EVs lies the imperative for strategic planning and collaborative action on Vehicle-to-X (V2X), a crucial technology for smartening the road transport sector.[i]

Recently adopted legislation – as part of the European Green Deal – has already paved the way for the roll-out of smart-charging technologies in the electromobility ecosystem.[ii] We welcome these initiatives and will monitor their implementation closely. Smart charging is a fundamental prerequisite for V2X, which will deliver further advantages for people, the climate and European businesses alike.

Recognising this, this document from the Platform for Electromobility seeks to present a comprehensive roadmap on V2X, setting out a series of actionable steps that by Member States (MS) should undertake, along with measures required at the EU level. Stressing the importance of a cross-sectoral approach, our strategy seeks to navigate the complexities of V2X integration in our energy system without delving too deeply into intricate technicalities. The paper outlines enablers and barriers to adopting bidirectional charging systems, clarifies crucial barriers – and highlights ongoing efforts to mitigate them – and underscores the imperative for concerted and regulatory action to realise the transformative potential of V2X integration.

1/ Benefits of bidirectional charging

a/ Benefits for public finances & grid investments

V2X integration offers a multifaceted solution, one with the potential to unlock a wide range of benefits across various domains. Foremost among these, V2X – as with other flexibility resources – complements conventional grid reinforcement measures, helping alleviate the strain on existing infrastructure while enhancing its resilience. We are already starting to see increasing tensions in the grid and the overwhelming need to reinforce it; therefore, the deployment of V2X and the use of EVs as batteries represents a ‘no-brainer’[i] and would effectively smooth the rollout of grid reinforcement, something that usually takes between 5-15 years. V2X integration thus offers access to a realm of ‘low-hanging fruit’ opportunities, allowing the cost-efficient adaptation of the grids to growing electrification.

b/ Benefits for Europe energy autonomy

The integration of V2X will help deploy renewable energy sources (RES), by providing efficient storage solutions. It has the potential to help balance the grid and increase the penetration of renewable electricity (RES-E) into it, thus accelerating the drive to climate neutrality. Indeed, in order to ensure generation adequacy – key for the energy transition – V2X will be pivotal. As intermittent renewable energy becomes increasingly prevalent, maintaining grid stability and meeting demand poses significant challenges. Here, V2X solutions can play a crucial role in balancing supply and demand, enabling dynamic resource adequacy analyses that realise the enormous potential of V2G capabilities.

c/ Benefits for grid operators

From the perspective of the grid operators, there are manifold advantages. For Transmission System Operators (TSOs), V2X is particularly beneficials for Frequency Regulation (FCR) Services, which are pivotal functions for TSOs. In addition to mere savings in battery costs, V2X optimises both standalone and grid-connected storage battery systems. FCR plays a critical role, not only in reducing the necessity for investment in battery storage services but also in minimising the need for grid upgrades. These efficiencies translate into systemic savings, ultimately benefiting electricity consumers. For DSOs, V2X can play a major role in local flexibility markets and congestion solutions providing services to DSOs and representing a valuable flexible resource that can be procured to ease tensions on distribution grids. This requires flexibility mechanisms in which V2X value can be stacked based on related remuneration. To enable even more value of V2X for every DSO, market based procurement of flexibility based on V2X shall be stimulated.

d/ Benefits for users, people and businesses alike

From an end user’s perspective, the benefits of V2X integration will be substantial. Through leveraging V2X capabilities, users will have the opportunity to earn money from feeding energy into the grid, thus enhancing the overall value proposition of electric mobility.[ii] Remuneration mechanisms (such as those based on availability, capacity or time) will trigger further consumers to participate; once they do so, they will naturally generate demand for V2X. V2X integration will not only enhance grid resilience and promote renewable energy uptake but also pave the way for a more sustainable, efficient and adaptive energy ecosystem, one where EVs can equally participate in flex mechanisms.

2. Legislative and Regulatory Principles for V2X Integration

As we call on legislators to begin shaping the regulatory framework for V2X integration, there must be a number of core founding principles that underpin their efforts to foster innovation, interoperability, fairness and trust within the emerging ecosystem.

a/ Consumer trust

Foremost among these principles must be building and maintaining consumer trust. Legislators must prioritise creating a robust system that instils trust among users, system operators and businesses alike. This will entail ensuring transparency and accountability in V2X transactions while also safeguarding consumer rights and interests.

b/ Business models based on use cases

The deployment of V2X infrastructure must be accompanied by corresponding business models, particularly where financed/cofinanced by public entities. As the value of V2X depends on the use case of fleet and chargepoints, there need to be proper business models created that provide an incentive for consumers. Regulators should therefore facilitate mechanisms to support user compensation and fair pricing; these should recognise the pivotal role granular pricing structures play in enabling diverse business models and in incentivising dynamic energy management. The increased volatility in our energy system arising from renewables and negative grid tariffs can further stimulate consumers to engage and participate in V2X initiatives.

c/ Commonly accepted and harmonised standards

The promotion of common standards is paramount for ensuring interoperability and reliability across V2X systems. These should allow the CCS standard to provide smart and bidirectional charging. This should be implemented as early as possible in both charging stations and cars. Any further delay will lead to infrastructure that is not future-proof and will fail to deliver the smart-charging services we will need for the energy transition to succeed. Standardisation bodies should prioritise development and enforcement of standardised protocols for battery efficiency and warranty and for EV charging protocols between both the grid and vehicle. This will bolster consumer confidence and trust in V2X technologies.

d/ Affordability through democratisation

The accessibility and affordability of V2G-capable vehicles must be a priority if access to this transformative technology is to be democratised. By incentivising competition and innovation in the production of V2X-capable chargers and EVs as well as through lowering the barriers detailed below, legislators can drive down costs and promote widespread adoption. This in turn will create economies of scale and lower barriers to entry. With the right regulatory framework in place, recharging costs can theoretically be brought down to zero with bidirectional charging.[i]

e/ Equal treatment for all grid usages

Ensuring equal access, participation, and treatment for all energy usages, including all type of V2X, is fundamental. All grid users should receive equal treatment without discrimination, be they electric vehicles, wind turbines or home appliances. Any exceptions – such as tariff exemptions – should be restricted to emerging user groups, should remain temporary and should be appropriately justified.

f/ Upgradability path

In envisioning the regulatory framework for V2X integration, it is imperative to prioritise establishing future-proof systems capable of evolving alongside advancing technologies and changing needs. Although V2X technology is not as yet fully harmonised across Europe and still faces barriers, its early rollout is needed in order to facilitate improvements. Central to this endeavour is the need for an ‘upgradability path’, embedded within the regulatory framework. Such a path will not only instils trust among consumers and markets but also ensure compliance with future technological advancements and emerging requirements.

g/ Public charging hidden potential

In Europe, a significant proportion of the car fleet lacks access to home charging. As a result, publicly available charging will continue to be necessary in the future. This presents an opportunity to leverage V2X technology at these points also. We therefore encourage public charging points to be V2X-capable; this is provided that the cost-benefit analysis is positive, they are priced similarly, only implemented on slow chargers and do not impede the rollout of charging stations across Europe.

3. Barriers to V2X Deployment

Despite the potential offered by V2X integration, several barriers continue to hinder its widespread deployment. Overcoming regulatory, technical and market hurdles will require concerted efforts.

a/ Implementation of the Electricity Market Design

At the forefront of these challenges are regulatory barriers, most notably the lack of implementation by MS of the 2019 Electricity Market Design, which discriminates and disincentivises the participation of V2X in the electricity markets. To address this, there is an urgent need for MS to accelerate their implementation.

b/ Double Taxation

One of the asks of battery stakeholders (EVs and stationary) is to eliminate double taxation; that is, the taxing again of electricity injected into the grid from a battery. Double taxation[i] remains a persistent concern, particularly in scenarios where energy storage is integrated with other loads. While progress has been made in mitigating double taxation for large-scale storage, challenges persist for small-scale storage assets such as V2X. For example, in Germany, double taxation for stationary storage has been removed, yet remains in place for mobile storage.

c/ Uncoordinated grid requirements

The absence of the anticipated regulations, coupled with limited access to organised markets and revenue streams, poses significant challenges to V2X deployment. Uncoordinated grid requirements and standards between countries are exacerbating these challenges, hindering interoperability and complicating cross-border deployment efforts. Divergent communication standards and disparate smart meter adoption rates – something that is particularly evident in countries such as Germany, which has low penetration rates – underscore the urgent need for harmonisation and standardisation initiatives to realise the full potential of V2X integration.

4. Call for coherence, actions and political ownership at EU level

a/ Coherence across Member States

As the EU navigates the complexities of V2X integration, it is vital to address the prevailing divergences among MS and to foster a cohesive regulatory framework that promotes innovation and harmonisation. Despite incremental progress, no MS has successfully removed all barriers to V2X deployment, underscoring the imperative for EU-level intervention. For V2X for slow public charging, we therefore call for national capacity targets – rather an EU-wide one – because the share of cars without access to off-street parking at home differs significantly between MS.

b/ Coherence across EU legislations and regulations

To advance implementation of V2X and harness its manifold advantages within Europe, it is crucial that the newly installed European institutions adopt a holistic approach to this challenge. All V2X-relevant measures should be in the form a comprehensive regulatory framework, rather than addressing them in isolated discussions, or rather than discussion technologies (AC vs DC). One way of ensuring this seamless integration across diverse legislative frameworks – and avoiding a fragmented approach – is to establish political ownership.

c/ Multilevel coherence on V2X

Cities will, in general, be the key enablers and accelerators of V2X due to the alignment between clean air and decarbonisation strategies (such as growing adoption of zero-emission zones, electrification of heating as an alternative to petrol/gas/wood). V2X should therefore be part of an integrated mobility and energy strategy at all territorial levels. We therefore call upon the EU to adapt the proposed SUMPs/SULPs into SUMEPs/SULEPs (Sustainable Urban Logistics/Mobility and Energy Plan). This will ensure coordinated and integrated planning, helping couple mobility/logistics with energy aspects

d/ Double mandate to jumpstart the market.

Mandating V2X interoperability for all bidirectional-capable vehicles, while at the same time requiring V2X capability for public fleets and buildings would be decisive in kickstarting the market and boosting widespread adoption. It would also ensure flexibility for independent aggregators and promote the use of submeters. Requiring interoperability and encouraging public fleets to lead by example will help jumpstart the market.


Additional measures, including addressing communication standards and issuing non-binding guidelines for MS, will be essential for fostering coherence and facilitating the transition towards a sustainable, interoperable V2X ecosystem. With upcoming revisions to key pieces of legislation now on the horizon, it is an opportune moment for the European Commission to demonstrate leadership and to spearhead concerted action to achieving V2X integration goals. By embracing coherence at an EU level, policymakers can unlock the full potential of V2X technologies and accelerate the shift to a smarter, greener future.

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[i] V2X is an EV bidirectional charging technology encompassing several sub technologies: When the vehicle is plugged and electricity automatically flows from the car back to the grid, this is known as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G).  If the charging and discharging of electricity stored in electric vehicles takes place in buildings, this technology is known as Vehicle-to-Building or Vehicle-to-Home (V2B or V2H).

[ii] Notably in the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the Renewable Energy Directive and the Alternative Fuels Infrastructures Regulation

The benefits of bidirectional charging

[i] It has been calculated that V2G can offer 21TWh of upward flexibility, and 24TWh of downward flexibility by 2030, considering 30% of the EVs are charged bidirectionally. Together with other flexibility resources, €11 to €29 billion could be saved in annual savings in distribution grid investments.

Source : https ://

[ii] In a fleet demo in Denmark, a 10-EV fleet engaging in frequency regulation (FCR) services   recorded an average revenue of € 1,860 per car per year[ii]. In a residential V2G project connecting 320 homes in the UK, the V2G units were able to create ‘between £230 and £300 of value per year through the spot electricity market’ and the project team expects that ‘when combined with flexibility services this could grow to £500 per year[ii].’ In the UK, a solution already commercialized proposes the first V2G tariff in the UK where EV drivers would get free charging thanks to their V2G charger and vehicle[ii], providing clear incentives and enhancing the social acceptance of the consumer to opt for bidirectional charging.


Legislative and Regulatory Principles for V2X Integration

[i] Source:, p 9

Barriers to V2X deployment

[i] In fact, battery stakeholders face a triple taxation. Once when the energy is taken from the grid, twice when part of the energy is injected into the grid, and a third time when that electricity is used somewhere else. The electricity injected to the grid should not be taxed when taken by the battery nor when injected back into the grid.

[Video] Charles Esser highlights importance of coordination and cooperation between grid stakeholders.

Energy & Industry

Rise of electric vehicles, fall of the power grid?

The smooth integration of electric mobility into the power grid is the next frontier on the path toward clean mobility. The Platform for Electromobility issued a 15-solutions strong recommendations paper to ensure a smooth integration. Charles Esser highlighes here some key points and invites you to join the debate with key transport manufacturers.

Our recommendationsJoin the debate

Electric Vehicles are “battery-on-wheels”. What does that mean? With the right policy framework, smart charging can smoothen the impact of EVs on the grid.

But what’s more, the millions on new electrified vehicles in Europe can actually be used as assets to support the grid when it is under stress with Vehicle-to-Grid technologies.

We recently published with other members of the Platform, a roadmap of 15 solutions for a smooth integration of e-mobility into the grid. I won’t cover them all here but would like to underline one point:

One of the main challenges in planning the electrical grid in a way that can absorb charging of EVs lies in the uncertainty about how different types of EVs will recharge in different places.

The key to success here is early communication, coordination and collaboration between stakeholders: this includes the DSOs that we represent, but also local authorities, charge point operators, energy companies, fleet managers and so on.

While the Platform for Electromobility helps us get closer to each other, we call on European authorities to initiate, moderate and formalize this collaboration.

In a few weeks at the European Sustainable Energy Week in Brussels, I will be discussing all this from the point of view of European industries at our EUSEW session on 11 June in the late afternoon.

We gathered major European clean transport manufacturers across different modes to understand how upcoming European energy policies can help them be at the same time more competitive, more sustainable with a minimum, or maybe even positive, impact on the power grid.

Make sure to join us! You’ll find the registration link under this video. See you there!

Electromobility Stakeholders' Manifesto Compilation for 2024-2029

EU Elections

Compilation of Electromobility Stakeholders' Manifestos for 2024-2029

A unique document for policy-makers to tackle challenges ahead of us and make electric mobility transition a success for people, climate and businesses.

Download the compilation here

Europe’s future, decarbonised mobility ecosystem will be composed by a myriad of stakeholders. To make the energy transition a success, they all present both specific and cross-sectoral needs. All presented in this unique document.

Hereby, we present a unique compilation of the political manifestos from several members of the Platform for Electromobility. It stands as a testament to the collective effort and unified vision driving the advancement of electric mobility across all sustainable modes of transportation; but also showcases the diversity of legislative measures and political steps that remain to be taken for each and every sectors.

Within these manifestos lie the cornerstone recommendations crucial for the development and integration of electric mobility into European societies and economies. They stem from a diverse range of entities spanning industries, associations, NGOs, and local authorities, underscoring the breadth and depth of stakeholder involvement in shaping the decarbonised mobility ecosystem. As we approach the EU elections, this consolidated document serves as an exceptional resource for policymakers and stakeholders alike, providing them with a comprehensive overview of the priorities and aspirations of all the sectors composing the clean mobility system of tomorrow.

Transpiring from all manifestos presented here are cross-sectoral imperatives captured by the triple priority : Implement, Invest, Industrialise. Implement the Green Deal’s legislative measures. Invest to make the Green Deal a concrete reality. And industrialise to make the Green Deal beneficial for all Europeans, climate, people and businesses alike. These overarching goals gathered in the Platform for Electromobility’s manifesto, represent the pillars upon which our collective success rests. I invite you to delve into this compilation and explore the nuanced perspectives and unique contributions of each sector. Each of them is a milestone on the path towards a sustainable, electrified mobility.

Access each individual manifesto for 2024-2029 below.

Platform's statement: PFAS in sustainable e-mobility

Supply chain

PFAS in sustainable e-mobility

In the pursuit of the electrification of the mobility sector for the years to come, it is essential to recognise concerns surrounding certain PFAS use cases and their production, use and disposal.

Download PDF here

The Platform for Electromobility acknowledges the significance and broad presence of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in the electromobility ecosystem. PFAS represent a group of artificial/ anthropogenic chemicals with different physical, chemical, and biological properties[1]. PFAS have been widely utilised in most industries for their valuable properties (including resistance to heat, water, and oil) that enhance product performance and safety. However, their production and disposal raise concerns about environment and human exposure[2].

In the context of clean mobility manufacturing, e.g components of electric vehicles of all modes to renewable energy infrastructures, PFAS have played an enabling role. They are  used in sustainable transportation, energy systems and components, such as batteries, wiring, and battery thermal management systems.

In the pursuit of the electrification of the mobility sector for the years to come, it is essential to recognise concerns surrounding certain PFAS use cases and their production, use and disposal. Considering that environmental and human health protection are critical, we are committed to supporting the transition to PFAS-free solutions in the sustainable mobility sector, and would support measures to eliminate all emissions released during the life cycle as soon as viable industrial alternatives[3] are available[4]. Our primary collective objective is to reduce, and where possible, phase out the use of PFAS following the REACH risk management approach across all mobility industries. We advocate for continuous innovation to replace such PFAS application in sustainable mobility.

We outline below crucial points for consideration to the Regulators during the whole restriction proposal negotiation process:  

1. Minimize uncertainties for investors

While Europe has shown its intention to take a global leading role in environmentally conscious battery production, ongoing uncertainties around PFAS use in the battery industry represents a real threat to this nascent and needed industry for the coming years. The PFAS restriction proposal presented by the four Member States and Norway to ECHA is putting investments in Europe into the mobility sector today at risk, while other parts of the world are actively promoting the development of a domestic e-mobility value chain. Uncertainties regarding the duration of the derogation period pose a potential risk of exposing the sectors to a phase-out without adequate alternatives.

We call upon legislators to take a detailed approach ensuring predictability for battery value chain operators while future-proofing the industry from further restrictions.


2. Allow appropriate, open-ended derogation periods

The proposed phase-out of PFAS, which does not take into account the long lead times for developing alternatives will likely hinder the deployment of ‘made-in-Europe’ essential sustainable mobility solutions, particularly in uses when no viable substitutes exist. Legislators must recognise that, up to date, some components of e-mobility applications cannot work without PFAS[5], because no viable alternative solutions exist on the market or possible alternatives have been ruled as unviable. In order to avoid disastrous consequences for the battery industry and therefore the e-mobility roll-out, the proposed PFAS restriction requires careful and specific consideration:

We call on legislators to grant appropriate derogation periods for as long as necessary for testing alternatives and bringing them to the market[6] and allow for the use of PFAS where no alternative is available.

Encourage continuous and increased research and development to accelerate the testing and research around possible alternatives.

We also support reducing the scope of the current restriction proposal to exclude applications where no significant emissions happen during the whole life cycle, such as for batteries.[7]


3. Consider appropriate tools to increase transparency along the e-mobility supply chain:

Transparency and monitoring requirements could help improve the appropriate capture and destruction of PFAS using complementary abatement technologies and improve depollution standards.


4. Ensure consistent and future-proof legislation

Consistency across various EU legislations is key. Upstream, the issue of PFAS should be addressed within the context of Article 6, which pertains to Substances of Concern in the EU Batteries Regulation. Downstream, matters related to the disposal of materials containing PFAS in electric vehicles are currently under discussion in the End-of-Life Vehicle Regulation proposal.

We urge legislators to pay special attention to the issue of legacy substances under the revision of the EU End-of-Life Vehicles Directive.

Any ban on substances must be applied only on new types of vehicles.


Subsequent set of policies

Following the above-mentioned principles, we call for adopting the following balanced set of policies, which support  reducing PFAS use where possible, mitigate their impact on the environment and human health, while supporting the energy transition and path towards climate-neutrality:

Encourage and invest in research and development to identify and promote viable alternatives to currently used PFAS in the electromobility sectors

The derogations which will be defined in the European Commission’s restriction for the use of PFAS substances in MAC (Mobile Air Conditioning) should be the same for all vehicles including EVs and combustion engine vehicles with mechanical compressors;

Ensure legislative predictability and science-based principle in chemicals management so that PFAS restrictions do not unintentionally increase the risk of investment diversion in battery manufacturing, potentially shifting operations from Europe to third countries.

Increase transparency and traceability on PFAS presence across the EV value chain, beyond battery production, notably by merging requested information of the Vehicle passport as proposed in the ELVR and the Battery passport behind a single QR Code.

It is imperative to foster sustainable and viable alternatives to PFAS in a balanced approach to align with the EU’s wider objective of accelerating a  sustainable and resilient clean mobility sector.


[2] The PFOA, a sub-group of PFAS, have notably been included in recent WHO classification as group one carcinogen (IARC Monographs evaluate the carcinogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) – IARC ( Resulting from this, PFOA have been already globally regulated and phased out. They are not in the scope of this document.

[3] Industrial viable alternatives are defined as innovations that have been tested, approved and scalable, ready for mass-market applications.

[4] Regarding vehicles, only new types should be concerned by the upcoming restrictions.


[6] ready for mass-market applications

[7] ECOS have decided to dissociate from other members of the Platform for Electromobility and not to support this last specification.

Open Letter to Prof. Draghi and EU Heads of States on EU Competitiveness Strategy

Open letter

Platform Chair: Prioritizing EU Competitiveness in the Transport Sector

to Prof. Mario Draghi and EU Heads of States

Our open letter on industrial strategy

Industrial competitiveness will be high on the agenda of the Special European Council of 17th and 18th April in Brussels. It has lately tended to overshadow sustainability. We, members of the Platform for Electromobility, a unique coalition of industries, NGOs, and civil society organizations committed to advancing electric mobility across all modes of transportation in Europe, firmly believe there can be no industrial competitiveness without sustainability. The Green Deal has set the course. It is imperative to implement it swiftly and continue in that direction.

The EU does need an industrial strategy to ensure its businesses can complete the transition as planned. In our latest publication, “A 360° e-mobility industry strategy“, you will find five recommendations we believe should be a priority of the next strategic agenda:

  1. Ensuring regulatory stability for industries and investors. This means first and foremost ensuring that the European Green Deal legislations as voted in the 2019-2024 mandate remain steady over time.

  2. Enhancing value chain competitiveness and resilience. European industrial policy initiatives should see their focus widened from specific components to a more comprehensive approach, spanning from raw materials to end products and from individual to all modes of sustainable transportation.

  3. Financing the short-term transition through accessible opportunities. Existing EU funds can already serve as valuable assets if they are distributed efficiently and intelligently, notably by streamlining access to finance, particularly for net-zero industries, through instruments such as the Innovation Fund and InvestEU.

  4. Establishing a Net Zero Investment Plan for long-term financing. The STEP platform, although welcomed, unfortunately far from the pan-European response to global competition on cleantech that the EU needs.

  5. Strengthening international cooperation. Strengthening ties with diverse regions would diversify sources, reduce geopolitical risks and uncertainties, ensure a secure supply chain, enhance global industrial collaborations, and uphold a fair competitive environment for all clean transport industries.

We urge the European Council and the upcoming report of the future of European Competitiveness to recognise that industrial competitiveness and sustainability are intrinsically linked and cannot go one without the other. Hoping that our recommendations will help shape the policy priorities of the upcoming EU legislative cycle, we stand ready to contribute to the discussions further.

Céline Domecq
Chair of the Platform for Electromobility, 2024