EV Charging: how to tap in the grid smartly?

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EV Charging :
How to tap in the grid smartly?

With a market penetration of 10% in Europe in 2021[1], and with a purchase price and total cost of ownership outperforming that of the internal combustion engine (ICE) before the end of 2027[2], the take-up of electric vehicles (EVs) is expected to accelerate significantly in the coming years. The widespread electrification of transport is the most efficient way to reach Europe’s climate objectives for the sector. Challenges may lie ahead, but smart charging must not be overlooked as the main asset for overcoming these hurdles.

A critical mass of EVs on the market will impact electricity consumption patterns and create an overall increase in electricity demand, particularly during peak-time periods. Smart charging can be a crucial tool for increasing the adoption rate of EVs, by mitigating the stress on the grid and supporting the transition towards sustainable electricity; each connected EV helps reduce CO2 emissions further. Smart charging can reduce CO2 by an estimated annual 600,000 tons by 2030, through the greater integration of renewables in the grid.[1]

With the electrification of usages, a rapid increase in decentralised and local loads could – if not managed correctly – overstretch the current low-voltage distribution grids, particularly in residential or commercial areas[2]; smart-charged EVs provide a solution. Bidirectional charging and other flexible services – where appropriate – can also provide solutions and benefits, both to the grid and to the end-user (of the grid and of the vehicles), and should not be overlooked.

The Platform for electromobility therefore welcomes that the ‘Fit for 55’ package recognises the importance of smart charging for integrating transport in the energy system but we encourage more robust and consistent support for smart charging throughout the package. In order to unlock all the benefits smart charging can deliver to the electricity system, to EV users, to the environment and to society at large, the following considerations should be respected in a coherent manner throughout all relevant legislative files.

  1. What should be classified as smart charging?

Definitions of smart charging differ between legislations. Indeed, different levels of ‘smartness’ are possible, depending on the business solution deployed and the level of involvement of the consumers. The Platform for electromobility believes that charging installation should be considered smart if:

  1. it provides real-time adjustment
  2. it adjusts charging in response to external signals
  3. the adjustments give additional clear benefits to the EV driving consumers, providing flexibility to the grid.

Bidirectional charging comes to complement smart charging services. While unidirectional charging enables adjustment to the charging process depending on external signals, bidirectional charging – also known as V2X (‘vehicle-to-everything’) goes a step further. It allows the vehicle to exchange energy with the connected asset (grid, home, building) in both directions, as well as charging or discharging for as long as it is plugged in. This means that the vehicle can offer services for a longer timeframe, as unidirectional charging stops once the battery is full.

What are the benefits of smart and bidirectional charging?

Flexibility services are a vital enabler for grid management in the energy system of a carbon neutral Europe, and smart charging can play a crucial role in delivering this flexibility. New and refurbished charging installations (public and private) should therefore be smart.[1] The timeframe for a potential eventual retrofit of existing stations should be defined through a comprehensive impact assessment, coordinated with the stakeholders of all affected sectors and Member States. Such an impact assessment will allow a comprehensive overview of the requirements for retrofitting, and will therefore optimise both the cost and the deployment of smart charging points.

  1. Smart charging will have a key role for the user in:
  • Empowering consumers in the energy transition, by transforming electric vehicles into an energy asset.
  • Taking full advantage of low electricity prices in the system for consumers and reduce the consumer’s bill of electricity (savings are estimated between €60 and €170 per year[2]).
  • In the heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) segment such as e-buses, smart charger capability offers the possibility to optimise the charging process according to the e-bus’s schedule, managing the allocation of the available power at charging depots (e.g. identifying and setting different priorities and criteria for charging the vehicle based, for example, on the order of arrival, departure-time priority, etc.).

  1. Smart charging will have a key role for the grid in:
  • Increasing system efficiency, by integrating the road transport sector into the energy system. This will optimise the use of the electricity grid and reduce the investments required in the power grid (which could reach €375-€425 billion by 2030[3]) compared to those of unmanaged charging.
  • Avoiding grid congestion, by lowering the load pressure and consequently enabling the more efficient integration of EVs into the power system.
  • Taking full advantage of the availability of renewable electricity, therefore increasing the penetration of variable renewable energy within our energy system.

  1. Bidirectional charging could also have a key role for the user in:
  • Empowering the consumer in the energy transition to an even greater extent, by transforming the electric vehicle into a ‘battery on wheels’.
  • Taking full advantage, and in particular Vehicle-to-Home (V2H), of self-consumption while mitigating their exposure to high prices for customer exposed to dynamic tariffs.
  • Selling back electricity to the grid to bring further significant financial benefits for the consumer.
  • Generating further revenue streams for public transport operators and/or fleet managers, in particular in the case of depot charging, allowing reductions to the total cost of ownership and thus offsetting the cost of charging infrastructure while generating additional revenues.[4]

In addition, other technological innovations capable of bringing flexibility to the system in the future – as well as a proper determination of the correct balance between charging modes using a case-based approach – should not be ignored but rather be carefully considered.

How to make smart charging work?

An enabling policy framework is needed to unlock these benefits and deliver them to both the electricity system and to society at large. The legal framework should be consumer-focused, consistent, future-oriented, and should allow appropriate reactivity, coordination and data sharing:

  1. Consumer focused: Any legal framework should create provisions that ensure that those EV drivers who provide flexibility by adopting smart charging solutions receive net positive effect for so doing. Consumer adoption is key to a successful implementation of smart charging technologies, and therefore should be made the central stakeholder.
  2. Consistent: Any definition and provisions set out in the AFIR, the REDIII and in the revision of the EPBD, should be both mutually consistent and consistent with energy directives in general, in line with the definition of storage. In particular, it will be essential to maintain consistency between the different definitions for smart and bidirectional charging. Furthermore, it will be vital that regulations consistently pursue a level playing field for smart charging and other technologies that provide flexibility to the grid. Consistency between legal definitions should also be ensured by avoiding overlap with the definition of ‘digitally connected stations’. To run the smart charging system in a coherent way, regulatory framework must also support the different actors of the eco-system to cooperate together, including OEMs, to optimize the benefits while ensuring that batteries are preserved.
  3. Future-oriented: A legal definition of smart charging should be sufficiently broad, and mention benefits without mentioning technicalities, so as to include future technologies.
  4. Reactivity: Smart charging should allow adjustments that are rapid enough to deal with grid disturbances and emergencies.
  5. Data: To ensure this necessary level of reactivity, smart charging requires access to information from the battery management system. On the basis of a contractual agreement, relevant and necessary data should be made available to vehicle owners and users, as well as third parties acting on their behalf.
  6. Cooperation: Smart charging needs the different actors of the eco-system to work together, including OEMs, to optimize the benefits while ensuring that batteries are preserved.

Our specific policy recommendations for smart and bidirectional charging

Incentives and support for the uptake of smart charging should be proposed, as it can offer a full range of additional services compared to regular charging. Bidirectional charging should also be encouraged when demonstrating the positive socioeconomic impact and creating a net benefit for the EV driving consumer who is contributing to the energy efficiency of the entire system.

The Platform calls for ensuring the consistency of the RED III with both the new Regulation on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure and with the energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD). The current definition of smart charging and bidirectional recharging should be aligned, and any changes to the related definitions and provisions in one text should also be made in the other.

The Platform welcomes the Commission’s recognition of the role of smart charging in the AFIR for enabling system integration. Improvements should also be made to support smart charging deployment. We therefore call for improvements to the requirements on smart charging (art. 2 and 5.8). You can read more details in our paper dedicated to AFIR here.

Time with the vehicle plugged: as important as using a smart charger: To realise the full potential of smart charging, the recharging points should be deployed at locations where vehicles park for extended periods of time. This allows the flexibility of choosing when to start and stop charging. At or near home is the main one, followed by the workplace. On average in EU, 60% of passenger cars have access to off-street parking at home, where is relatively easy to install a small charger. The other 40% of the car fleet will depend on the urban public infrastructure to recharge their batteries, as most of them won’t have access to a parking space at work.

On average, a battery passenger car in the EU consumes around 50 kWh/week. Three main prototypes of public recharging exist: high-power charge stations (equivalent to a petrol station), chargers in commercial areas (typically 22-90 kW) or chargers in residential areas (3.7-11 kW). High power chargers have limited flexibility. Here drivers usually seek the maximum power in the shortest amount of time possible  In a commercial area, the vehicle will need between one to two hours a week, while in a residential area, the car can be plugged in for more than 12 hours a day (even more during weekends) replicating the use case of people with off-street parking at home. In other words, in residential areas, the vehicle can be plugged in for 64-times longer than in a commercial location.

[1] https://insideevs.com/news/564628/europe-plugin-car-sales-2021/#:~:text=Thanks%20to%20the%20strong%20second,in%20ten%20was%20all%2Delectric.

[2] https://www.transportenvironment.org/discover/evs-will-be-cheaper-than-petrol-cars-in-all-segments-by-2027-bnef-analysis-finds/

[3] Elia Group “Accelerating to net-zero: redefining energy and mobility”

[4] Smart charging: integrating a large widespread of electric cars in electricity distribution grids – EDSO, 2018

[5] Exceptions such as underground parking lot, where Wi-Fi to is impossible may exist or through location management system.

[6] https://www.concerte.fr/system/files/concertation/Electromobilite%CC%81%20-%20Synth%C3%A8se%20vFinale.pdf

[7] “Connecting the dots: Distribution grid investment to power the energy transition”, Monitor Deloitte, E.DSO & Eurelectric, January 2021

[8] Currently, and assuming that the availability band made available by the e-buses in depot is 50 KW, it is expected that “Bus 2 Grid” will reduce the costs of the infrastructure to zero and generate additional annual revenues of €1000 per bus. Enel Foundation 2021 “Scenari E Prospettive Dell’elettrificazione Del Trasporto Pubblico Su Strada”.


PV – EV : A powerful duo to make Europe drive clean

The three keys for a join deployment of

solar power and electric vehicles

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Electric vehicles (EVs) deployment needs to significantly accelerate in the coming years. However, challenges to its deployment (lack of distribution grid availability, low consumer engagement, challenges to the deployment of the infrastructure during renovation, etc.) show very close similarities with those posed by the deployment of distributed photovoltaic solar power plants (PVs). Therefore any successful solutions should benefit both EV and PV deployment.

The uptake of EVs, together with PVs deployment (mainly via rooftop solutions), opens an important opportunity for unlocking a European ‘prosumer’ potential. ‘Prosumer’ refers to a model where individuals manage their own energy supply and consumption. Prosumer models can become a powerful enabler of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) integration, including photovoltaic solar power plants (PV). The joint integration of PV and EV will also have a significant impact on citizen carbon footprint (for their home energy and transport), by ensuring EV charging take place during periods of highest renewable content.

The rapid, massive uptake of EVs has the potential to become both a flexible asset for grid management and an opportunity for prosumer business models. EVs will also provide a boost to increasing the cost-effective penetration of renewable energy – like PV – within the electricity system. The combination of EVs, their batteries and smart-charging functionalities as sources of ancillary services for the distribution grid will bring clear benefits, in terms of RES integration, for both individual and collective projects. Electromobility and renewable energy therefore offer a win-win partnership. The benefits of smart and bidirectional charging in regions with high solar capacities are clear: when sun sets and falls, EVs can optimise consumption and grid constraint and avoid polluting at peak times.[1]

Recent European legislation, through the ‘Fit for 55’ package, leverages these opportunities, notably in the revision of the Renewable Energy Directive (see our full position here and here), but there is still more that can be done to increasingly make cars in Europe run on renewable energy.

Signed by both renewable energy suppliers, charge points operators (CPOs) and other relevant stakeholders, this joint call shows the enthusiasm within the whole industry to explore the synergies between solar electricity and EV charging solutions. To enhance these synergies and solve common challenges between EVs and PV, we recommend:

1. Developing an enabling framework for EV drivers to become prosumers

A significant share of EV drivers (30-50%) charging at home are usually interested in installing PV panels as part of their broad decarbonation objectives and to maximise their contribution to climate change objectives.

This offer considerable potential for encouraging prosumer behaviour, but in order to realise this potential, an appropriate regulatory and technological framework is needed. To make this a reality, the EU should develop a distributed energy strategy capable of empowering and boosting prosumers with solar PV, battery and EV, and, at the same time, ensure that the electricity distribution grid can connect distributed RES. It should be noted here that the adoption of these distributed loads does not pose a problem for the distribution grids in the short- and medium-term, since the most significant impact will occur principally in very specific areas and at a later stage, when greater investment will be needed.[2]

Rooftop solar, EVs and other local flexibility resources will only realise their full potential once they are able to also provide grid services via flexibility markets. This will require the full implementation of the Clean Energy Package across Europe. However, because this is not yet the case – despite the deadline expiring – the EU should look into options for applying greater pressure on Member States. A full implementation would allow entry into the next phase, which will see the designing of local flexibility markets, together with the European DSOs, to find appropriate flexibility signals for EV users.

2. Ensuring an enabling framework for solar PV deployment

To support the use of renewable energy in electric mobility, an enabling framework must be build. PPAs contracts must be facilitated, through clear frameworks and financing support – the guidelines on PPAs will be critical here. In addition, the stability of investment signals and market rules will be key.

In addition, permitting still pose significant barriers to solar PV project development. Here, the RED II provisions must be implemented, and the Commission should support the exchange of best practices.

3. Helping transition to needed new skills

With the development of new economic sectors, boosted by EV uptake such as PV industry, the transition to electromobility does not pose a threat but rather an upskilling opportunity for workers. New skills will indeed be needed, both to adapt the manufacturing of vehicles and to install the required infrastructure across Europe. We recommend the launch of a Skills Initiative on Solar installers, in synergy with CP operators and installers, as well as a Distributed Energy Installers Skills Initiative.

From a forward-looking perspective, it will be possible to identify specific initiatives for integrated retrofits.

In highly specific use cases, new approaches could be explored to reduce the installation and integration cost related for the combined installation of Solar PV, Home Storage and V2X charging. Early-stage experience has shown that the integration of AC-DC conversion technologies across the different voltage levels could be a solution for reducing PV and EV integration costs in certain use cases, such as isolated houses or rural areas (up to 30%-50%[3]). From that perspective, we would suggest identifying how the application cases can be addressed through Horizon Europe or similar calls in the areas of R&I identified above.

[1] For example, in California, a study has shown that “the real strength of grid-integrated vehicles in mitigating the duck curve is in avoiding large system-wide ramping, as seen in figures 3(c) and (d). In the V1G-only case, down-ramping and up-ramping are both mitigated by more than 2 GW/h by 2025. In the case with a mix of V1G and V2G vehicles, however, substantially larger gains are seen. Both down-ramping and up-ramping are substantially mitigated, by almost 7 GW/h, equivalent to avoiding construction of 35 natural gas 600 MW plants for ramping mitigation”. “Clean vehicles as an enabler for a clean electricity grid”, Jonathan Coignard, Samveg Saxena, Jeffery Greenblatt, Dai Wang, 2018

[2] Debunking the myth of the grid as a barrier to e-mobility, Eurelectric 2021 https://cdn.eurelectric.org/media/5275/debunking_the_myth_of_the_grid_as_a_barrier_to_e-mobility_-_final-2021-030-0145-01-e-h-2DEE801C.pdf

[3] Calculations made by Dcbel on real pilot home data in England


Platform’s reaction paper to the proposal for the revision of the Renewable Energy Directive

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Renewable energy:
Our position on the revision of the directive

The Platform for Electromobility welcomes the timely revision of the Commission’s proposal for the RED (Renewable Energy Directive). This will be key in supporting the EU in reaching carbon neutrality, notably by advancing the case for an electrified, decarbonised and efficient transport sector. In fact, clean direct electrification is the most cost-effective way of decarbonising Europe and reaching the 2030 and 2050 climate targets.

Moreover, direct electrification of transport has accelerated in recent past years, and the pace is only expected to increase. According to a recent BNEF study, in order to reach 100% CO2 emissions reduction by 2035, some 67% of passenger cars sales in Europe will need to be electric by 2030.

This rapid, massive uptake of EVs has the potential to become – thanks to smart charging – a flexible asset for grid management and an opportunity for prosumer business models. It will also provide a boost to the increased and cost-effective penetration of renewable energy in the electricity system. The combination of EVs, their batteries and smart charging functionalities as sources of ancillary services for the distribution grid will clearly bring benefits in terms of RES (Renewable Energy Sources) integration. Electromobility and renewable energy therefore offer a win-win partnership.

In this context, the Platform welcomes the recognition of smart charging and, where appropriate, bidirectional charging for integrating transport in the energy system. Two aspects in particular stand out; 1) the relevance of the charging points located at long-time-parking spaces, and 2) that national regulatory frameworks do not discriminate against electric vehicles participating in the electricity markets.

However, we do believe there are certain key aspects that can still be further reinforced within the Commission proposal. These will help support EV uptake and lead to swifter decarbonisation of both the transport and energy sectors

Greenhouse Gas based mandate

The Platform for electromobility raises concerns over the shift from an energy-based target for transport to a greenhouse gas (GHG) metric. If we support the fact that a threshold expressed in terms of GHG provides a relevant tool for accelerating the decarbonisation of transport while guaranteeing technology neutrality among low-carbon technologies, it may – within the framework of the RED – add complexity to the metric. Furthermore, it does not seem to bring any genuine added value to boosting renewable energy when compared to the existing framework. In fact, multipliers are implicitly integrated in the GHG-emission calculation method, and the GHG-emission based target of 13% is equal to the 24-26% in final energy consumption considered by the European Commission in its public consultation.

Furthermore, given that currently 24 of 27 Member States implement an energy-based target, it should be noted that using such a metric will have an impact on the current implementation of the Directive; these countries will have to start from scratch again, having just finished transposing the current RED II. This could result in delays in meeting the RES-T target and the overall EU binding RES target. France, for example, is currently working on the implementation of its credit mechanism, aimed to have this enter into force by 2022 using an energy-based RES-T target. With the switch to an emission-based target, France would have to revise its credit mechanism almost immediately following its implementation, leading to further delays.

Platform Members therefore invite the Commission to provide further information on its motive and rationale behind introducing a new GHG emission-based transport target.

Inclusion of electricity in national compliance mechanisms

The Platform is pleased that the proposal levels the playing field between biofuels and electricity by including electricity in national credit systems for fuel supplier compliance. This is a feature of the Directive that we called for in an earlier communication. The proposal shall as well ensure level playing fields between zero emissions options, especially between electricity for BEVs and RFNBOs . For instance, hydrogen can claim credits for private charging while renewable electricity for electric vehicles is restricted to public recharging stations only.

Focusing specifically on ‘public’ recharging points is discriminatory and inefficient. This is because it excludes some 80% of electricity supplied to road vehicles and provides incentives for people to charge their cars at public charging points rather than at home, as well as for companies not to charge their trucks and buses at their depots. The scope of the electricity credit mechanism should therefore be expanded to include recharging stations more generally, encompassing both public and private ones. It should also be possible for such a credit mechanism to also be applied to other types of transport such as rail, aviation or shipping.

The text is unclear as to whether it would apply to charge point operators (CPOs) alone, or whether it would also apply to electricity suppliers.  Within the current proposal, this could lead to a situation with different incentive schemes resulting in confusion amongst actors and the relevant incentive schemes.

Permitting

The Platform supports the Commission’s proposal to tackle the remaining barriers, including those relating to permitting procedures. We welcome in particular the proposed publication of a guidance on best practices to accelerate the permitting of projects. We urge the European Commission to publish such a guidance swiftly and ensure the best practices are disseminated to local authorities. Nevertheless, the review of permitting administrative procedures must be urgently addressed in the short term in the RED III and not be left until 2024. This will be key to preventing bottlenecks that may hinder the achievement of national RES commitments and the deployment of renewable installations more generally. We also recall that this should be done in cooperation with grid operators in order to preserve the security/stability of the grid.

Coherence with the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR) and the upcoming revision of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)

The Platform calls for ensuring the consistency of the RED III with the new Regulation on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure. The current definition on smart charging and bidirectional recharging should be aligned and any change to the related definitions and provisions in one text should be made in the other.

Furthermore, given that the European Commission has integrated provisions on the private charging points regarding smart charging in the RED III, we would like to underline the necessity of ensuring their coherence with the upcoming revision of the EPBD, which addresses private charging in its Article 8.

Coherence with Battery Regulation

On the data-sharing requirements relating to batteries, the Platform recommends ensuring consistency with proposed requirements under the EU Battery Regulation proposal and avoiding any duplication. For example, new performance and durability requirements for batteries are already included in Article 10 of the Battery Regulation proposal.[1] Similarly, the information on the state of health of the battery is included in Article 14 of the proposal.[2]

 

 

[1] The UNECE has recently developed performance and durability requirements via GTR, and therefore may be directly applied by the EU.

[2]This is also regulated by UNECE GTR on in-vehicle battery durability, namely ‘State of Certified Energy’ (SOCE), or capacity fading, and ‘State of Certified Range’ (SOCR).


Platform comments the EU Renewable Energy Directive in light of the EU Green Deal

In the past years, electricity-based transport technologies, such as electric vehicles (EVs), have significantly developed and decreased in cost. These technological improvements and demonstrated benefits of electrification call for an improvement of the sectoral target for renewable energy in transport to better reflect the positive environmental contribution of electric transport, as part of the envisaged reopening of the Renewable Energy Directive 2018/2001 (RED II). In parallel, EU Member states’ National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs)’ pledges show prospects for an accelerated deployment of renewables in the energy mix, and in particular in the electricity system, supporting the decarbonisation of transport along the full lifecycle of the fuel.

While many studies have demonstrated the scope for an increased volume of renewables in transport[1], it is critical that the Renewable Energy Directive’s framework for renewables in transport is revised to accelerate the electrification of the transport sector with renewable electricity generation.

The Platform therefore recommends introducing an obligation for Member states to introduce fuel-neutral credit trading mechanisms as a mean for obligated fuel suppliers to account for renewable energy used in transport.

The implementation of the RED II, which all Member states (MS) are required to transpose by June 2021, offers a great opportunity to accelerate EV uptake and the efficient penetration of renewable electricity in the transport sector. Yet, most MS and their national policies on renewable transport fuels still do not allow electromobility to contribute to the achievement of the RES-T target[2]. Most national policies still implement the RED II by means of a blending mandate imposed on the obligated parties, i.e the fuel suppliers. Yet, renewable electricity is not a drop-in fuel that can be blended and is not properly accounted in RES-T targets, creating a missed opportunity to properly reflect the decarbonisation of transport and creating a missed level playing field.

The introduction of fuel-neutral credit trading mechanisms could support the adaptation of the RED II framework to the accelerated electrification of transport.

Fuel-neutral credit trading mechanisms consists in requiring obligated parties to meet their renewable energy obligation by means of fuel-neutral credits, accounted in energy equivalent (kWh, KJ, Gcal or other). In parallel, fuel-neutral credits are allocated by a public authority to defined parties for each energy unit of renewable fuel used in transport. As for electricity, various possibilities exist concerning the party entitled to receive credits (charging station operator, electricity supplier, etc.). Obligated parties can then either acquire fuel-neutral credits by increasing blending in their fuel supply or by procuring credits from third parties through a dedicated platform. Such schemes have already been introduced in the Netherlands, in Germany, in California and in France, and are being elaborated in Canada[3]. The Platform believes credit revenues shall be used as a leverage to support electromobility in Member States.

Electricity credit mechanisms represent a low hanging fruit that could adequately value the contribution of renewable-based electromobility to the decarbonisation of transport. Importantly, they would also generate resources for the diversity of players in the electromobility sector without weighing on state budgets. For instance, credit revenues could support charging point operators to improve the business case of charging infrastructure and – as a result – accelerate the roll-out of the millions of chargers needed and help the EU reach its objective of establishing 1 million charging points by 2025, as set out by the European Commission in its European Green Deal communication[4].

Further, future credit trading mechanisms should follow the specific principles below, subject to implementation in Member states:

Fuel neutral credits should be granted for the renewable share of the electricity used in EVs, calculated on the basis of the share of renewable electricity in the national mix as close as possible to real-time.

This would incentivize for a better real-time match between the renewable generation and EV charging.

Future credit mechanisms should allow for the accounting of 100% renewable electricity used in transport.

As a principle and as specified in article 27 of the RED II, fuel neutral credits should be granted for the renewable share of the electricity used in EVs, calculated on the basis of the share of renewable electricity in the national mix in the previous maximum two-year period. Yet, Member states should also allow for the accounting of 100% renewable electricity supply to transport, such as electricity supplied through a direct connection to a renewable energy generator or via an innovative supply contract such as Power Purchase Agreement (PPA).

It should also be assessed how future credit mechanisms could account for the renewable kWhs charged at home or in the workplace

 

As most kWhs used by EVs will be charged at home or in the workplace and not at public chargers, it should also be assessed how future credit mechanisms could account for the renewable kWhs charged at home or in the workplace, which will also enable to maximize the share of electrons captured.

[1] Among other studies: 17% of final energy demand in transport will be renewable by 2030 (in final energy demand, without multipliers or subtargets) according to SolarPower Europe (2020). 100% Renewable Energy Europe

[2] Transport & Environment (2019) Using Renewable electricity in the Renewable Energy Directive

[3] On the Dutch, German and Californian example, see Transport & Environment (2019) Using Renewable electricity in the Renewable Energy Directive.

The government of Canada is considering establishing a clean fuel standard that will count and credit clean electricity used. Networked charging operators (including utilities operating charging) and, in its 2018 Proposed Regulatory Approach, proposed that automakers be able to participate using vehicle telematics in the crediting system and market.  Canada’s program is expected to start in 2022. For further information: https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/resources/documents/lcfs-electricity-and-hydrogen-provisions

https://www.emissionsauthority.nl/topics/themes/energy-for-transport

The French government is designing a crediting system too as part of the revision of its 2021 budget bill, in current article 15. For more information, see http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/dyn/15/textes/l15b3360_projet-loi

[4] https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/european-green-deal-communication_en.pdf