Ten truths about electric trucks and buses

Lice-cycle GHG emissions

BETs have the lowest life-cycle GHG emissions

This is true from 16-40t trucks, according to a study by Ricardo Research (2020), which compared emissions of the differing drivetrain technologies based on a WTW approach. The emission-saving potential of EVs increase when entirely powered by renewable energy (up to 81%) compared to a fossil-powered alternative as shown by study ICCT (2021) undertaken in passenger cars. As BETs have outstanding energy efficiency, lifecycle emissions decrease with every additional kilometre driven, meaning that long-distance trucks have particularly high emission-saving potential.

Ricardo Research (2020)IICCT (2021)
Energy efficiency

BETs offer a dramatic improvement of energy efficiency

BETs offer a dramatic improvement of energy efficiency, i.e. the ability to drive a greater number of kilometres on the same amount of energy. The JRC, EUCAR and Concawe (2020) have updated their joint evaluation of the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for a wide range of powertrain options. Considering only zero-emission technologies on WTW basis, BETs using green electricity - both regional and long-haul - are 2.6 times more energy efficient than the green hydrogen-powered fuel cell equivalent. Although synthetic fuels were evaluated for cars rather than trucks, as an indication a battery electric car using green electricity is 6.9 times more energy efficient than a combustion vehicle using e-fuel.

JRC, EUCAR and Concawe (2020)

GHGs and air pollutant

BEBs do not produce local GHGs and air pollutant emissions

BEBs do not produce local GHGs and air pollutant emissions, providing considerable health benefits, particularly in cities. Because they are powered by electricity, the higher powertrain efficiency means that BEBs emit 73% less CO2 equivalent than diesels, rising to 90% if powered by 100% renewable sources. In contrast (according to ICCT (2022)),CNG CO2 emissions are nearly 30% lower than a diesel, but its higher energy consumption - 24-50% per kilometre - reduces this advantage. In addition, methane is a potent GHG with a global warming potential more than 80 times greater than CO2 over a 20-year period; unintended leakages during extraction and transport further exacerbate the situation.

ICCT (2022)
Intermodality

BETs will contribute to the further greening of intermodal transport

BETs will contribute to the further greening of intermodal transport, as well as improving the overall energy efficiency of freight logistics. Synergies between rail, road transport and inland waterways are crucial to the logistics system. These offer benefits for the whole supply chain, as intermodal transport helps reduce congestion in urban areas while potentially increasing capacity in and around cities. Tangible examples of intermodal links have been successfully deployed in Paris’ metropolitan area. Companies such as IKEA and Franprix supply stores in Paris are using a combination of electric ships and electric road transport solutions for the last-mile segment.

Electricity grid

With smart grid technologies, the grid would need little adaptation for BETs and BEBs.

With smart grid technologies, the grid would need little adaptation for BETs and BEBs. Uni- and bi-directional charging enables a double optimization of the load at the depot. Optimising the grid connection and allowing the monetisation of the vehicles' flexibility capabilities makes them valuable assets, even when parked: it also provides the grid with supplementary battery capacity. V2G is performed at much lower power levels than in regenerative braking or fast charging. It can even slow down age-related battery degradation.

Cost

By 2030, 99.6% of new BETs will be cheaper to own and run than diesel trucks

By 2030, 99.6% of new BETs will be cheaper to own and run than diesel trucks while carrying the same weight of goods over the same distance and journey time, according to a study by TNO (2022). This study is based on the TCO, the most important economic indicator for a truck. It covers those deployed in urban and regional delivery over distances of 300 km as well as long-distance trucks travelling 800km/day. Due to the savings from using electricity rather than diesel, the cost-saving potential of BETs increases with every additional kilometre driven, meaning that by 2035, long-distance trucks will be the most cost-efficient solution in Europe.

study by TNO (2022)

Investment costs of BEBs

Higher investment costs of BEBs offset by lower electricity consumption and maintenance costs.

Similarly, the higher investment costs of BEBs are offset by their lower electricity consumption and maintenance costs (in Spain and Latin America in 2021 and in Italy, US and UK by 2023). Bocconi University and Enel Foundation (2021) integrated well-known TCO (the initial investment in purchasing vehicles and the charging infrastructure, plus the operational and maintenance costs peculiar to BEBs) with circular economy revenue streams, by the second life of batteries and V2G. This explains why buses are now the fastest-growing zero-emission vehicle segment, making up 23% of new city buses in 2021, up from 16% in 2020. Considering the revenues from V2G and second life, BEBs are more cost effective than diesel and CNG buses.

Payload

Urban and regional trucks can already have as much payload capacity as their diesel counterparts

Urban and regional trucks can already have as much payload capacity as their diesel counterparts today, according to a recent study by TNO. While the battery of an electric long-haul truck currently may weigh several tonnes, depending on its size, the so-called 'ZEV weight allowance' grants an additional two tonnes to zero emission trucks on European roads. This, along with improving vehicle energy efficiency and battery energy density, will eliminate any payload loss by the end of the decade, even for long-distance trucks with 800km range.

Tagline

BETs already have more than sufficient range to cover freight transport routes in Europe

BETs already have more than sufficient range to cover freight transport routes in Europe, something that will continue to improve. With the compulsory 45-minute break every 4.5 hours, and given that they have a maximum permitted speed of 90km/h, trucks will never drive more than 400 km without having to stop. Tesla has begun deliveries of the ‘Tesla Semi’, a clean-sheet design BET with a real-world range of 800km when fully loaded. The EU’s Weights & Dimensions Directive allows ZETs to be increased by two tonnes over that of diesel trucks. This allowance alone already increases the payload-neutral range of electric trucks by over 300km.

Extreme conditions

BETs are as competent as diesel trucks in extreme cold.

BETs are as competent as diesel trucks in extreme cold. In February 2021, Volvo Trucks, ABB and Vattenfall - together with a local mining company - ran a trial on replacing the diesel transport of iron ore with BETs. The ore is taken from a North Sweden mine to the railway transfer station, in temperatures of -30C°. The BETs were used for the journey from the mine to the transfer station where they could unload the cargo while recharging batteries following a 280km round trip normally undertaken by diesel-powered vehicles. The Polar Winter Project proved the feasibility of electric transportation in extreme conditions. The BETs were able to drive the entire distance - including 140km with 14t of ore on board, at temperatures as low as -32C° - while taking the same amount of time as the diesel trucks.


Click the button

BET       Battery Electric Truck

GHG      Greenhouse Gas

EV         Electric Vehicle

WTW    Wheel-to-Well

BEB       Battery Electric Bus

CNG      Compressed Natural Gas

V2G       Vehicle-to-Grid

HDV      Heavy-Duty Vehicle

LFP        Lithium iron phosphate

TCO       Total Cost of Ownership

ZEV       Zero-Emission Vehicle

ZET        Zero-Emission Truck

JRC        Joint Research Center


Innovative projects of Platform members

This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:



Working Group

Six thematic Working Groups each chaired by a Platform members

Work programme is delivered through Working Groups. Any member may participate in any working group. Members are free to participate in all, in a party of the Working Groups. Working Group Leader, appointed by unanimity of WG memebrs, coordinate the activities.

Recommendations by WGsEvents and news by WGs

WG Infrastructure

The WG will work on designed the best legislative framework for a sustainable, user- and grid-friendly network of public and private charging infrastructure. The main focus will be the Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Regulation and the Energy Performance of Building Directive. The WG is currently chaired by:

Contact WG Chair

WG Logistic & buses

The main objective of the WG will be to influence the revision of the CO2 Standards for trucks and buses to be published by the European Commission at the end of 2022. The WG is also expecting to work on the Greening Freight Package once published. The WG is currently chaired in interim by Enel X Way but the position is open to other interested members.

Contact WG Chair

WG Supply Chain

The WG will aim at providing policy makers with regulatory solutions to ensure sustainability, via strong circularity models and economic viability of the value chain of electric mobility via a set of recommendations for the Critical Raw Materials Act, the Circular Car Initiative, Battery Regulations... The WG is currently chaired by:

Contact WG Chair

WG Energy

The WG will develop policy solutions and sensibilization to the opportunities of transport electrification for the deployment of renewable energy sources via smart charging solutions and responsible data management system. The Renewable Energy Directive as well as solutions proposed in REPowerEU and In-vehicle generated data directive will be on the agenda. The WG is chaired by:

Contact WG Chair

WG Fleet

The WG will advise the European Commission on delivering the legislation to mandate the decarbonization of public and private fleet as voted by the European Parliament in the CO2 Standards for cars and vans and in REPowerEU. In the longer term, reflections will lay on the electrification of circulating fleet. The WG is currently chaired by:

Contact WG Chair

WG EU Industrial Strategy

The WG is developing a series of recommendation to deliver the Green Deal in a sustainable, secure, autonomous way. Four pillars constitute the scope fo the WG: international trade, human resources, state aids, and strategic investments. The WG is currently chaired the European Climate Foundation and:

Contact WG Chair

Reaction Paper to the new Article 12 “Infrastructure for sustainable mobility” (EPBD)

Reaction Paper to the new Article 12 “Infrastructure for sustainable mobility” of the Revision of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

Download PDF here

Last year, 2021, set a record for the battery electric vehicle (EV) sales, which achieved 10%[1] of total sales in the European automotive market. This trend is expected to continue to rise, driven by the new ambitious objectives set by the EU along with the national recovery plans implemented by Member States. However, the challenge remains immense. Indeed, the number of EVs is set to increase throughout the EU as a result of the proposed ban of internal combustion engines (ICE) sales by 2035, set out in the revision of the Regulation on the CO2 standards for cars and vans as part of the Fit for 55. Consumer demand for electric bicycles is also increasing strongly, with more than 4.5 million units sold in 2020, representing more than 20% of total sales.

If Europe is to succeed in its transition towards zero-emission mobility, the correct charging infrastructure needs to be put in place to push the EV market into achieving the required growth and ensuring a positive customer experience. Here, the deployment of private charging is of the utmost importance for encouraging the growth of electromobility, as 90% of all charging takes place at home or in the workplace. However, the current electromobility provisions of the Directive on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD) will fall significantly short in establishing the right conditions for the widespread adoption of EVs.

The Platform for electromobility therefore fully supports the revision of the EPBD

The Platform for electromobility therefore fully supports the revision of the EPBD presented in December 2021, as it is the main EU legislation for addressing private charging. The introduction of Art. 12 in the Commission’s proposal, which relates to electromobility in buildings, is therefore central to supporting zero-emission mobility in the EU. In particular, the Platform welcomes the:

Provisions we support

However, the Platform believes that further improvements are needed, and has therefore set out five recommendations:

Clarify the scope of application of Art. 12.

The way Art. 12 is currently drafted could be interpreted as meaning that requirements only apply to parking spaces if ‘the car park is physically adjacent to the building’ but not if it is ‘located inside the building’. We believe this is not the Commission's intention and therefore ask for further clarification.

Ensure charging solutions in existing buildings.

Some 80% of the EU’s current building stock will still be in use by 2050, with the average annual major renovation rate just 2.7% for non-residential buildings and 1.5% for residential buildings. As a result, the EC should ensure the installation of charging points in existing buildings.

Our key recommendations

Completing the charging requirements for new and under major renovation buildings.

The Platform asks to complete the charging requirements for new buildings and buildings undergoing renovation in order to mandate the deployment of smart-charging ready recharging points in all new and existing buildings.

Our key recommendations

Reinforce the deployment of smart charging functionalities

The development of smart charging and bidirectional charging (V2G) in buildings is an opportunity for EV users. It provides a superior charging experience and reduces the consumers’ electricity bill. Indeed, in France, on average with V2G, the annual cost of recharging an electric vehicle is 240€/year, compared to 420€/year without smart charging functionalities. The Commission has recognised, in its AFIR Impact Assessment, that every smart recharging point could on average create a system benefit of more than 100€/year by 2030. Smart charging also reintegrates electricity surpluses into the grids (V2G) and/or reuse it in the buildings (V2B) and homes (V2H), as well as supporting the uptake of electromobility. It can also create synergies with renewable energies, by integrating them into the electricity grids and providing flexibility services to the system. Furthermore, smart charging complements the right-to-plug by ensuring that charging points optimise the use of the grid capacity of a building and removes the argument that grid connections need to be reinforced.

Our key recommendations

Reinforce the measures to ensure pre-cabling

Pre-cabling of buildings should refer to both the technical cabling (cable path, technical sheaths, drilling) and the electrical pre-equipment in collective electrical installations (switchboard, horizontal electrical column, bus cable).

The comprehensive pre-cabling of buildings will enable the subsequent connection of individual charging points, at minimum cost, by simply installing a home charger. Furthermore, the pre-cabling of renovated buildings is a low hanging fruit, with little cost involved when done during the construction phase – which is the most efficient way to do it. Cabling after construction is completed is not cost-efficient and would lead to highly cumbersome discussions with project developers. Ducting infrastructure is a future-proof and cost-effective solution, the installation cost of which is minimal when compared to the total cost of constructing or renovating a building. By way of comparison, failure to ensure ducting infrastructure would entail costs that could be up to nine times higher if a building needs to be retrofitted.

Our key recommendations

EPBD: Our support to the proposal

The Platform for electromobility therefore fully supports the revision of the EPBD presented in December 2021, as it is the main EU legislation for addressing private charging. The introduction of Art. 12 in the Commission’s proposal, which relates to electromobility in buildings, is therefore central to supporting zero-emission mobility in the EU. In particular, the Platform welcomes the:

  • Guarantee to the right-to-plug in all buildings and the removal of regulatory barriers (Art. 12. 8)
  • Obligatory pre-cabling of all new and under-renovation buildings.
  • Requirement for smart charging-readiness for all new and renovated chargers, as well as bidirectional chargers (V2G) when appropriate (Art. 12.6)
  • Reinforcement of the charging requirements for new and renovated buildings (Art. 12.1, 12.2 and 12.4)
  • Lowering of the existing parking space thresholds for pre-cabling and installation of charge points for all new and renovated non-residential buildings (Art. 12.1, 12. 4)
  • Requirements for bicycle parking (Art. 12.1 – 12.4)
  • Suppression of the unnecessary exemptions, particularly those applied to SMEs in article 8(4).

EPBD: Reinforce the measures to ensure pre-cabling

Pre-cabling of buildings should refer to both the technical cabling (cable path, technical sheaths, drilling) and the electrical pre-equipment in collective electrical installations (switchboard, horizontal electrical column, bus cable).

The comprehensive pre-cabling of buildings will enable the subsequent connection of individual charging points, at minimum cost, by simply installing a home charger. Furthermore, the pre-cabling of renovated buildings is a low hanging fruit, with little cost involved when done during the construction phase – which is the most efficient way to do it. Cabling after construction is completed is not cost-efficient and would lead to highly cumbersome discussions with project developers. Ducting infrastructure is a future-proof and cost-effective solution, the installation cost of which is minimal when compared to the total cost of constructing or renovating a building. By way of comparison, failure to ensure ducting infrastructure would entail costs that could be up to nine times higher if a building needs to be retrofitted.

Key recommendations:

  • Introduce an explicit definition of pre-cabling, in order to encompass the electrical installation; it should not be limited to ducting infrastructure. To secure efficiency, electrical installations should be considered as ‘technical building system’ (Art. 2.6).
  • Inform on the readiness of any building to safely install an EV charging point into the Energy Performance Certificates (Annex V).
  • Integrate Energy Performance Certificates information about the status (safety and readiness) of electrical installations (Annex V)
  • Set up local or regional one-stop-shop accessible websites and portals that combine various services, including the right to request with streamlined permits and installation procedures.
  • Ensure that requests for installing charging stations in collective properties do not exceed three months. (reinforce ‘right to plug’).
  • Address the administrative hurdles (for example, EV charging as extra-legal benefit for employees) as well as collective action problems (such as split incentives between EV and non-EV drivers, renters vs. owners, employee vs. employer, etc.).
  • Encourage Member States to financially support the installation of EV charging in buildings (including depots and logistic hubs for trucks, light-duty vehicles and buses). The Commission and its co-legislators, including the Member States, should also examine the possibilities of using new and current financial instruments to stimulate investment in private charging infrastructure.

EPBD: Reinforce the deployment of smart charging functionalities

The development of smart charging and bidirectional charging (V2G) in buildings is an opportunity for EV users. It provides a superior charging experience and reduces the consumers’ electricity bill. Indeed, in France, on average with V2G, the annual cost of recharging an electric vehicle is 240€/year, compared to 420€/year without smart charging functionalities.[1] The Commission has recognised, in its AFIR Impact Assessment, that every smart recharging point could on average create a system benefit of more than 100€/year by 2030.[2] Smart charging also reintegrates electricity surpluses into the grids (V2G) and/or reuse it in the buildings (V2B) and homes (V2H), as well as supporting the uptake of electromobility. It can also create synergies with renewable energies, by integrating them into the electricity grids and providing flexibility services to the system. Furthermore, smart charging complements the right-to-plug by ensuring that charging points optimise the use of the grid capacity of a building and removes the argument that grid connections need to be reinforced.

 

Key recommendations:

  • Ensure that all newly installed chargers in buildings are capable of smart charging.
  • Ensure consistency in the definitions and provisions on smart charging set in the revision of the EPBD with those proposed in the new Regulation on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure - which is replacing the current AFI Directive 2014/94/EU (in Art. 2 and 5) - and in the revision of the Renewable Energy Directive.
  • Ensure the recognition of mobile storage in the European energy framework.
  • Clarify that bidirectional charging (Art. 12. 6) should be encouraged when demonstrating a positive socioeconomic impact and contributing to system efficiency. Co-legislators should also address any remaining barriers for vehicle-to-grid technologies.

[1] [In French] RTE (2019), Report on the development of electromobility.

[2] AFIR Impact Assessment, Annexes, page 86.


EPBD: Completing the charging requirements for new and under major renovation buildings.

Completing the charging requirements for new and under major renovation buildings.

The Platform asks to complete the charging requirements for new buildings and buildings undergoing renovation in order to mandate the deployment of smart-charging ready recharging points in all new and existing buildings.

Key recommendations:

  • Include depot charging for heavy- and light-duty vehicles, i.e. extending the scope of the EPBD to cover new or renovated private depots, as well as logistic hubs and distribution centres. This would require them to be ready for future battery electric truck charging (350 kW+ chargers), so that trucks can conveniently charge while loading/unloading. This should include pre-equipment, as well as an appropriate grid connection.
  • Charging facilities for e-bikes should match those for e-cars. There are two options:
    • recharging points for electric vehicles would be equipped with a household power socket, allowing for the easy charging of both e-bikes and e-scooters as well as certain types of L-category vehicles such as e-mopeds, or
    • deploy a separate bicycle charging infrastructure, with dedicated bicycle recharging points.
  • The requirements should apply to all buildings that are undergoing a major renovation, regardless of whether the car park is included in the renovation measures.
  • Greater ambition for parking spaces for non-residential buildings; there should be a minimum of 50% of parking spaces with charging points.

EPBD: Ensure charging solutions in existing buildings.

Some 80% of the EU’s current building stock will still be in use by 2050, with the average annual major renovation rate just 2.7% for non-residential buildings and 1.5% for residential buildings.[1] As a result, the EC should ensure the installation of charging points in existing buildings.

Key recommendations:

  • Extend the scope of Art. 12 to ensure requirements for installing charging points in existing buildings. Incentives or enforcement mechanisms, to make sure that the stakeholders involved comply, should be introduced.
  • Avoid putting a disproportionate burden on building owners and tenants, by addressing the necessary elements to reduce the costs of private charging installation.
  • Introduce per-cabling requirements for existing buildings:
    • 2027: all parking spaces in 15% of all buildings
    • 2030: all parking spaces in 30% of buildings (100% for all publicly owned buildings)
    • 2035: all parking spaces in all buildings.
  • More ambitious charging point requirements for non-residential buildings (15% of parking spaces (2030), 30% (2035) applicable for all buildings with more than ten parking spaces.

[1] EPBD Impact Assessment.