30 investments priorities by 2030 for sustainable mobility

Energy, Infrastructure, Industry

Our recommendations for a “European Net-Zero Infrastructure Investment Plan

Without deployment of high-speed charging infrastructure for electric trucks, a high quality and interoperable rail network as well as integrated recycling facilities, the Green Deal will remain simply a paper tiger.

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The Platform for Electromobility supports the overall shift in European policy priorities established the European Green Deal. The Deal acts as a valuable long-term compass, particularly in light of the pending elections and the appointment of a new Commission. In 2023, two pivotal pieces of legislation supporting the shift – the Net Zero Industrial Act and the Critical Raw Materials Act – were enacted. However, while these measures are welcome first steps, they call for a complementary initiative: a robust European Net-Zero Infrastructure Investment Plan.

A comprehensive Net Zero Investment Plan is essential if the EU Green Deal is to be implemented effectively within an appropriate timeframe. European companies and industries will require additional financing in order to transition to net zero, particularly given the support provided by competitors such as the US and China. Whether it is an “Investment Plan for Jobs and Clean Technologies”, an “Investment Plan for the Green Transition”, a “major investment plan to fund green industries and infrastructure” or a “massive investment spending plan for the creation of green jobs and the transformation of industry, transport and energy” – by the European People’s Party, the Party of European Socialists, the European Greens and The Left, respectively, it is clear that investment stands as a cross-partisan priority.

As outlined in our EU election manifesto, a significant investment plan post-elections is essential for ensuring the successful implementation of the Green Deal. This will benefit individuals, the climate and businesses alike, targeting sectors crucial to achieving Net Zero goals. Without deployment of high-speed charging infrastructure for electric trucks, a high quality and interoperable rail network as well as integrated recycling facilities, the Green Deal will remain simply a paper tiger. It is imperative that we make these and other long-term, easily accessible investments. Ensuring legacy of the Green Deal with a large investment plan must take centre stage during the upcoming European elections. It is the democratic moment that would legitimise such a leap forward.

At the Platform for Electromobility, our focus is on identifying priorities for the sustainable transport sectors as a whole, ensuring they work synergistically while avoiding duplication or contradictory expenditure. This document offers an overview of the required investment priorities for the myriad sectors that will constitute tomorrow’s clean mobility ecosystem. We therefore aim to support policy makers in determining the content and priorities of such a cross-partisan investment plan.

Below, 30 investment priorities in seven areas have been identified, in order to respond to three policy imperatives: deploying hard infrastructure, implementing industrial policy and supporting the shift to zero-emissions vehicles. Those priorities are closely intertwined, build on each other and create valuable synergies.

While financial considerations are paramount, they must not be the sole focus. The Green Deal also requires further legislative measures for proper implementation, such as industrial policy reforms, corporate fleet mandates and electricity market design overhauls.  We have chosen to refrain from delving into financial arrangements, in order to maintain focus on our area of expertise: sustainable mobility.

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30 priorities over seven areas, across three pillars.

Discover the details of the report.

1/ Investing in energy and transport infrastructure to enable the Green Deal

Energy Infrastructures (14.5%)Charging Infrastructure (21%)Off-road infrastructures (18,9%)

2/ Invest for competitive, sustainable, European transport industries

Circularity value chain (10.0%)‘Made-in-Europe’ manufacturing (14.9%)Skills and workforce (10.5%)

3/ Support the roll-out of zero-emissions vehicles cross all modes

New, decarbonised fleets (4.8%)
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Methodology - Results are based on a preliminary questionnaire, distributed on a voluntary basis to the members of the Platform for Electromobility. The preliminary findings have been discussed and debated within each of the Platform’s six thematic working groups. The final outcomes have been validated by all members following the Platform’s Memorandum of Understanding validation processes.

Support the roll-out of zero-emissions vehicles cross all modes

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 7: Invest in new, decarbonised fleets (5.7%)

Accelerating the transition to sustainable transport involves electrifying corporate and leasing car fleets, van and truck fleets, and acquiring zero-emission trains, with targeted funding and incentives playing a crucial role in promoting widespread adoption and achieving ambitious climate goals.

Share of investment needs dedicated to fleets renewal

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Fleet renewal Priorities

Electrification of Corporate and Leasing Car Fleets

Electrification of Van and Truck Fleets

Acquisition of Zero-Emission Trains

  1. Electrification of Corporate and Leasing Car Fleets

Electrification of corporate and leasing car fleets presents a significant opportunity for accelerating the transition to sustainable transport. A European ‘Marshall Plan’, akin to the post-COVID recovery plan, could play a pivotal role in expediting fleet renewal over a ten-year period. By providing targeted funding and incentives, Europe can encourage the widespread adoption of electric vehicles within corporate and leasing fleets, thus reducing emissions, promoting innovation and stimulating economic growth.

  1. Electrification of Van and Truck Fleets

Electrification of van and truck fleets is essential for achieving ambitious climate goals and reducing emissions from the transport sector. Investing in electrification of commercial fleets can yield substantial environmental and economic benefits.

  1. Acquisition of Zero-Emission Trains

As Europe transitions to zero-emission transport, there is a pressing need to acquire new zero-emission rolling stock to replace ageing diesel fleets. Given that the average lifespan of rolling stock in Europe is approximately 30 years, targeted investments in zero-emission trains will be crucial for phasing out diesel propulsion and advancing rail electrification efforts. Infrastructure managers and operators – particularly in Central and Eastern Europe where rolling stock fleets are older – stand to benefit significantly from investments in new zero-emission rolling stock. By supporting the acquisition of zero-emission trains, Europe can modernise its rail infrastructure, reduce emissions and promote sustainable mobility throughout the continent.

Investing in energy infrastructure to enable the Green Deal

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 1 : Energy Infrastructures (14.5%)

Investment in TSO and DSO infrastructure, energy storage solutions, renewable energy sources, and grid modernization, including smart grid deployment for Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) applications, is critical for facilitating electric transport adoption and enhancing energy resilience in Europe.

Share of investment needs dedicated to energy infrastructures

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Energy Priorities

TSO and DSO Expansion/Upgrade

Energy Storage Solutions

Development of Renewable Energy Sources

Modernising the Grid

Smart Grid Deployment/V2G

  1. TSO and DSO Expansion/Upgrade

Expanding and upgrading TSO and DSO infrastructure is imperative for meeting the growing demand for electricity and facilitating the widespread adoption of electric transport. These upgrades are essential for supporting charging infrastructure for both light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs), as well as for enhancing maritime and inland port grids. Reinforcing connections to the national grid for shore-side electricity will boost energy resilience and promote cleaner transport options.

  1. Energy Storage Solutions

Energy storage solutions play a crucial role in relieving grid congestion and accelerating the integration of renewable energy sources. Investing in such technologies will enhance grid flexibility, mitigate the variability issues associated with renewables, and support the transition to a more-sustainable and resilient energy system. Prioritising energy storage solution development and deployment is essential for ensuring grid stability and promoting renewable energy deployment.

  1. Development of Renewable Energy Sources

The electrification of transport is impossible without decarbonised electricity. Expanding carbon-free energy sources is fundamental to achieving energy security, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and advancing the energy transition. Europe must prioritise the development of wind, solar and hydro – as well as other renewable and decarbonised energy sources – if it is to diversify the energy mix and decrease reliance on fossil fuels.

  1. Modernising the Grid

Digitising and modernising the grid are essential for improving demand-supply management and streamlining the process for creating new grid connections. Through embracing digital technologies, Europe can enhance grid reliability, optimise energy distribution and support the integration of distributed energy resources. Modernising the grid will also provide the foundations for future advancements in smart grid deployment and enable realisation of benefits such as vehicle-o-grid (V2G) capabilities.

  1. Smart Grid Deployment/V2G

Supporting smart grid deployment, particularly for V2G applications, is essential for optimising grid operations and leveraging the potential of electric vehicles as grid assets. Smart charging technologies enable EVs to be part of demand response programmes, thus helping balance supply and demand on the grid. Investing in smart grid infrastructure will allow for the efficient use of resources, minimise grid constraints and facilitate the transition to a more flexible and resilient energy system without heavy investment in infrastructure.

Invest skills for competitive, sustainable, European transport industries

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 6: Invest in skills and workforce (10.5%)

Unlocking Europe’s decarbonization potential requires mapping training needs, expanding training capacity, and launching awareness campaigns to cultivate a skilled workforce for sustainable transportation.

Share of investment needs dedicated to skills developments

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Skills and Workforce Priorities

Mapping training needs and training capacities

Increasing existing training capacity

Awareness Campaigns

Developing a skilled workforce is essential for successfully decarbonising the transport sector. Addressing skills shortages, promoting job creation and enhancing training capacity are key priorities requiring coordinated efforts from the EU institutions, Member States and industry stakeholders.

  1. Mapping training needs and training capacities

The EU institutions and Member States must undertake a comprehensive skills mapping exercise to identify gaps and assess the needs for jobs and skills in various sectors. This should encompass both the traditional and new skills required to deliver decarbonisation. Based on the gaps identified, tools should be developed to publicise available training opportunities and instigate new training programmes where necessary.

  1. Increasing existing training capacity

To meet the growing demand for skilled workers, there should be investment in increasing training capacity, including improving Vocational Education and Training (VET) schools and recruiting suitably qualified teachers. Urgent action is needed to address the time required to adequately train workers, in order to ensure the steady supply of skilled labour for industries transitioning to sustainability. By enhancing training infrastructure and resources, Europe can build a workforce with the ability to advance the energy transition. Initiatives such as the ‘Net-Zero Academy’ can serve as role models for supporting skills development initiatives across Europe.

  1. Awareness Campaigns

Investment in awareness campaigns is crucial for attracting greater numbers of workers to technical jobs and education, particularly in those sectors undergoing energy transition. Such campaigns should target young people, to cultivate their long-term interest and engagement in sustainable professions. By raising awareness of the opportunities available in decarbonisation sectors, Europe can inspire the coming generation of skilled workers and drive innovation in clean technologies.

Invest in manufacturing for competitive, sustainable, European transport industries

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 5: Invest in ‘Made-in-Europe’ manufacturing (14.9%)

Efficient processing methods, increased R&D funding for sustainable battery development, support for EV and battery manufacturing, and refurbishment or manufacturing of zero-emission trains are vital for advancing the e-mobility industry in Europe, promoting sustainability, innovation, and economic growth.

Share of investment needs dedicated to manufacturing

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Manufacturing Priorities


Research & Development

EV Manufacturing

Battery Manufacturing

Zero Emission Trains Refurbishment

Zero Emission Trains Manufacturing

  1. Processing

Efficient and sustainable processing methods are integral to the preparation of raw materials for manufacturing components central to the emobility industry, such as batteries. This encompasses transforming raw materials – via various processes – into the specific forms required for producing batteries and other components. Ensuring the environmental responsibility of these processes is paramount for establishing a stable and ethical supply chain for the EV sector.

  1. Research and Development

Funding is essential to advance battery R&D for e-mobility. Transitioning away from per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is imperative for achieving full sustainability and futureproofing the industry. R&D funding, particularly for PFAS alternatives and battery development, is crucial for driving innovation and improving environmental performance. Strategic investment in R&D to consolidate European technology champions will enhance the competitiveness of European industries in the global market.

  1. Support for EV & 22. Battery Manufacturing

The development of battery production is crucial for reducing European industry’s dependence on Asia and the USA. Additionally, it presents an opportunity to create attractive employment opportunities. Supporting the growth of battery manufacturing not only strengthen Europe’s industrial base but also fosters innovation and economic growth. By investing in EV and battery manufacturing, Europe can become a leader in sustainable transportation and create a booming ecosystem of green technologies. In addition, it offers an opportunity to create attractive employment opportunities.

  1. Zero-Emission Trains: Refurbishment or 24. Manufacturing

The lack of rolling stock in Europe presents a significant barrier to expansion, particularly for new market entrants and operators seeking to launch innovative rail services. Refurbishing, retrofitting and manufacturing new rolling stock that meets the evolving needs of passengers, such as comfortable night trains and high-quality internet connectivity, is essential for accelerating behavioural change and promoting the widespread adoption of zero-emission trains. It is worth mentioning that the European Smart and Sustainable Mobility Strategy rail objectives are set at doubling by 2030 and tripling by 2050 high-speed rail traffic and increasing by 50% by 2030 and doubling by 2050 rail freight traffic. Achieving these ambitious goals, which are interlinked with the completion of the EU TEN-T rail network and the EU 2040 emissions reduction target, will require a considerable increase in the EU’s production capacity of (very) high-speed and freight rolling stock by 2050.

Investin circularity for competitive, sustainable, European transport industries

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 4: Invest to create a circularity value chain (10.0%)

Investing in recycling, urban mining, second-life batteries, and repairability is key for resource sustainability and circular economy in Europe, necessitating coordinated efforts and incentives for efficiency and environmental benefits.

Share of investment needs dedicated to circularity

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Circularity Priorities


Minin, Remining & Urban miness

Second-Life of batteriest


  1. Recycling

Investing in integrated recycling and repurposing facilities, in order to collect, dismantle and recover valuable metals from these sources, is essential for reducing reliance on primary mining and enhancing resource sustainability. By prioritising development of recycling infrastructure, Europe can establish a robust supply chain for critical metals and promote circular economy principles in the battery industry, ultimately contributing to the continent’s energy transition goals. Developing the EU’s recycling capabilities is paramount to retaining valuable materials within Europe and reducing dependency on imports. Incentivising the colocation of battery manufacturing and recycling facilities can streamline material flows, minimise environmental impact and use resources more efficiently.

  1. Mining, Remining and Urban Mines

Europe possesses a valuable resource in its so-called ‘urban mines’. These include used batteries and waste materials, which can be effectively leveraged to secure essential metals for battery production.

  1. Second-Life Batteries and 18. Repairability

Maximising the lifespan of batteries is essential for addressing the limited availability of raw materials within the EU. Embracing second-life battery programmes and implementing robust repairability requirements for both batteries and EVs can extend their usefulness and promote a thriving second-hand market. By incentivising reuse and repair of batteries and vehicles, Europe can reduce waste, lower its environmental footprint and unlock economic opportunities in the circular economy.

Investing in off-road infrastructures to enable the Green Deal

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 3 : Off-road Infrastructures (14.5%)

Investment in electrifying the rail network, establishing multimodal hubs, enhancing public transport, and upgrading harbors’ electricity infrastructure is vital for advancing Europe’s sustainability goals and improving transportation efficiency, necessitating significant financial commitments and strategic planning.

Share of investment needs dedicated to off-road infrastructures

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Off-road Infrastructures Priorities

Rail Network

Multimodal Hubs

Public Transport


  1. Rail Network & 12. Multimodal Hubs

The electrification of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) rail network by 2030, 2040 and 2050 presents a significant infrastructure challenge; one that will require substantial investments. Unfortunately, such investment in rail infrastructure has been sorely lacking over the past two decades. To address this, increased investment is imperative, with priority for three key areas. First, maintenance of existing infrastructure is paramount for ensuring optimal track conditions, enabling higher speeds and improving services. Second, upgrading existing network infrastructure – including implementing the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) signalisation and addressing bottlenecks – are crucial for enhancing efficiency and capacity. As acknowledged by former Italian Prime Minister Enrico Letta in his report “The future of the Single Market”, massive investments are needed to support the establishment of a comprehensive, pan-European high-speed rail network, “seamlessly linking all EU capitals and major urban centres”, with the aim “to significantly elevate rail’s role in long-distance passenger transportation, aiming to capture more than 50% of the market share”. The achievement of this initiative is presented as “a cornerstone in the EU’s journey towards enhanced connectivity, economic growth, and environmental sustainability, underscoring its profound importance for the future of the European Union”. According to the latest analysis by Institut Rousseau, an annual investment of 47 billion euros between 2024 and 2030 is required for the development of rail infrastructures to complete the TEN-T core network.

  1. Public Transport

Public transport – including urban rail infrastructure such as metros, trams and light rail vehicles – has a pivotal role to play in achieving Europe’s climate objectives. These systems combine high capacity, energy efficiency and safety with minimal land use, making them indispensable components of sustainable mobility. The revised TEN-T Regulation mandates that 430 major cities along the network develop Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) to promote zero- and low-emission mobility. Accordingly, there must be adequate funding allocated to support alternative fuel infrastructure solutions for urban rail, ensuring that charging infrastructure is also available at key locations such as terminuses and bus stops as well as at depots. In fact, the new TEN-T mandates that airports with an annual passenger traffic volume of more than 12 million passengers shall be connected to the TEN-T railway network, including the high-speed network, allowing for long distance rail services.

  1. Harbours

Upgrading maritime and inland port grids, along with their connections to the national grid, is essential for powering Shore-Side Electricity (SSE) infrastructure in European ports. Starting with ferry, container and cruise ship terminals by 2025, and extending to all other terminals by 2035, SSE infrastructure will ease the transition to cleaner maritime transportation. By prioritising investments in port electrification, Europe can reduce emissions from the shipping sector and promote sustainable port operations, in alignment with its climate objectives.

Investing in charging infrastructures to enable the Green Deal

Net Zero Investment Plan

Area 2 : Charging Infrastructures (14.5%)

Investment in high-power charging infrastructure for HDVs, depot charging infrastructure for HDVs and buses, LDV charging infrastructure, urban charging networks, and residential charging solutions is essential for enabling the widespread adoption of electric vehicles and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Europe, requiring significant investment and regulatory support.

Share of investment needs dedicated to charging infrastructures

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Charging Infrastructures Priorities

High-Power Charging Infrastructure for HDVs

Depot Charging Infrastructures for HDVs and Buses

Charging Infrastructures for LDVs

Charging Infrastructures in Urban Areas

Residential Charging

  1. High-Power Charging Infrastructure for HDVs

HPC infrastructure along motorway networks is critical for facilitating the transition to electric HDVs. While the available solutions are technically mature, it will require significant investment to kickstart the transformation. By prioritising the installation of HPC stations, Europe can ensure compliance with regulatory requirements (notably AFIR)  and substantially reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector. Public money must be directed towards meeting the real needs of drivers and fleets, which is to be able to charge during rest times.

  1. Depot Charging Infrastructures for HDVs and Buses

Depot charging plays a vital role in electrifying trucks and buses, as a significant portion of these vehicles return to depots at the end of each day. Europe should explore opportunities for local depot-based renewable energy production support sustainable charging solutions. Depot charging infrastructure will both reduce emissions and enhance energy resilience.

  1. Charging Infrastructures for LDVs

Overcoming barriers, such as high purchase prices and insufficient availability of charging points, is crucial for the widespread adoption of electric LDVs. This will require comprehensive investments to ensure adequate charging infrastructure coverage both nationally and regionally.

  1. Charging Infrastructures in Urban Areas

Urban areas need a greater density of charging networks to meet the growing demand for electric vehicles, particularly among residents without access to private parking spaces. Public charging points are pivotal in enabling urban dwellers to switch to electric transportation.

  1. Residential Charging

The residential sector is central to decarbonising the LDV fleet, as a majority of charging events take place at private residences. Furthermore, the installation of a controllable charging station is the most economical solution for the customer, the most energy-efficient for the grid, and promotes off-peak/super-off-peak charging. However, retrofitting existing buildings and electrical installations to accommodate charging points requires significant investment. Europe should assist with the renovations required to ensure widespread access to residential charging infrastructure, and support consumers in purchasing charging points. In addition, financial support for building-related costs – such as electrical upgrades and grid connections – is essential for encouraging the widespread adoption of electric vehicles in residential settings.

A Comprehensive Roadmap for V2X Integration in Europe

Energy & Infrastructures

A Comprehensive Roadmap for V2X Integration in Europe

The paper outlines enablers and barriers concerning bidirectional charging systems, clarifies key barriers, highlights ongoing efforts to mitigate them, and underscores the critical need for concerted and regulatory actions to achieve the transformative potential of V2X integration.

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Electric Vehicles (EVs) both pose particular challenges and present promising opportunities for the energy system; they mark a pivotal moment in the evolution of transportation and energy sectors. With the increased adoption of EVs lies the imperative for strategic planning and collaborative action on Vehicle-to-X (V2X), a crucial technology for smartening the road transport sector.[i]

Recently adopted legislation – as part of the European Green Deal – has already paved the way for the roll-out of smart-charging technologies in the electromobility ecosystem.[ii] We welcome these initiatives and will monitor their implementation closely. Smart charging is a fundamental prerequisite for V2X, which will deliver further advantages for people, the climate and European businesses alike.

Recognising this, this document from the Platform for Electromobility seeks to present a comprehensive roadmap on V2X, setting out a series of actionable steps that by Member States (MS) should undertake, along with measures required at the EU level. Stressing the importance of a cross-sectoral approach, our strategy seeks to navigate the complexities of V2X integration in our energy system without delving too deeply into intricate technicalities. The paper outlines enablers and barriers to adopting bidirectional charging systems, clarifies crucial barriers – and highlights ongoing efforts to mitigate them – and underscores the imperative for concerted and regulatory action to realise the transformative potential of V2X integration.

1/ Benefits of bidirectional charging

a/ Benefits for public finances & grid investments

V2X integration offers a multifaceted solution, one with the potential to unlock a wide range of benefits across various domains. Foremost among these, V2X – as with other flexibility resources – complements conventional grid reinforcement measures, helping alleviate the strain on existing infrastructure while enhancing its resilience. We are already starting to see increasing tensions in the grid and the overwhelming need to reinforce it; therefore, the deployment of V2X and the use of EVs as batteries represents a ‘no-brainer’[i] and would effectively smooth the rollout of grid reinforcement, something that usually takes between 5-15 years. V2X integration thus offers access to a realm of ‘low-hanging fruit’ opportunities, allowing the cost-efficient adaptation of the grids to growing electrification.

b/ Benefits for Europe energy autonomy

The integration of V2X will help deploy renewable energy sources (RES), by providing efficient storage solutions. It has the potential to help balance the grid and increase the penetration of renewable electricity (RES-E) into it, thus accelerating the drive to climate neutrality. Indeed, in order to ensure generation adequacy – key for the energy transition – V2X will be pivotal. As intermittent renewable energy becomes increasingly prevalent, maintaining grid stability and meeting demand poses significant challenges. Here, V2X solutions can play a crucial role in balancing supply and demand, enabling dynamic resource adequacy analyses that realise the enormous potential of V2G capabilities.

c/ Benefits for grid operators

From the perspective of the grid operators, there are manifold advantages. For Transmission System Operators (TSOs), V2X is particularly beneficials for Frequency Regulation (FCR) Services, which are pivotal functions for TSOs. In addition to mere savings in battery costs, V2X optimises both standalone and grid-connected storage battery systems. FCR plays a critical role, not only in reducing the necessity for investment in battery storage services but also in minimising the need for grid upgrades. These efficiencies translate into systemic savings, ultimately benefiting electricity consumers. For DSOs, V2X can play a major role in local flexibility markets and congestion solutions providing services to DSOs and representing a valuable flexible resource that can be procured to ease tensions on distribution grids. This requires flexibility mechanisms in which V2X value can be stacked based on related remuneration. To enable even more value of V2X for every DSO, market based procurement of flexibility based on V2X shall be stimulated.

d/ Benefits for users, people and businesses alike

From an end user’s perspective, the benefits of V2X integration will be substantial. Through leveraging V2X capabilities, users will have the opportunity to earn money from feeding energy into the grid, thus enhancing the overall value proposition of electric mobility.[ii] Remuneration mechanisms (such as those based on availability, capacity or time) will trigger further consumers to participate; once they do so, they will naturally generate demand for V2X. V2X integration will not only enhance grid resilience and promote renewable energy uptake but also pave the way for a more sustainable, efficient and adaptive energy ecosystem, one where EVs can equally participate in flex mechanisms.

2. Legislative and Regulatory Principles for V2X Integration

As we call on legislators to begin shaping the regulatory framework for V2X integration, there must be a number of core founding principles that underpin their efforts to foster innovation, interoperability, fairness and trust within the emerging ecosystem.

a/ Consumer trust

Foremost among these principles must be building and maintaining consumer trust. Legislators must prioritise creating a robust system that instils trust among users, system operators and businesses alike. This will entail ensuring transparency and accountability in V2X transactions while also safeguarding consumer rights and interests.

b/ Business models based on use cases

The deployment of V2X infrastructure must be accompanied by corresponding business models, particularly where financed/cofinanced by public entities. As the value of V2X depends on the use case of fleet and chargepoints, there need to be proper business models created that provide an incentive for consumers. Regulators should therefore facilitate mechanisms to support user compensation and fair pricing; these should recognise the pivotal role granular pricing structures play in enabling diverse business models and in incentivising dynamic energy management. The increased volatility in our energy system arising from renewables and negative grid tariffs can further stimulate consumers to engage and participate in V2X initiatives.

c/ Commonly accepted and harmonised standards

The promotion of common standards is paramount for ensuring interoperability and reliability across V2X systems. These should allow the CCS standard to provide smart and bidirectional charging. This should be implemented as early as possible in both charging stations and cars. Any further delay will lead to infrastructure that is not future-proof and will fail to deliver the smart-charging services we will need for the energy transition to succeed. Standardisation bodies should prioritise development and enforcement of standardised protocols for battery efficiency and warranty and for EV charging protocols between both the grid and vehicle. This will bolster consumer confidence and trust in V2X technologies.

d/ Affordability through democratisation

The accessibility and affordability of V2G-capable vehicles must be a priority if access to this transformative technology is to be democratised. By incentivising competition and innovation in the production of V2X-capable chargers and EVs as well as through lowering the barriers detailed below, legislators can drive down costs and promote widespread adoption. This in turn will create economies of scale and lower barriers to entry. With the right regulatory framework in place, recharging costs can theoretically be brought down to zero with bidirectional charging.[i]

e/ Equal treatment for all grid usages

Ensuring equal access, participation, and treatment for all energy usages, including all type of V2X, is fundamental. All grid users should receive equal treatment without discrimination, be they electric vehicles, wind turbines or home appliances. Any exceptions – such as tariff exemptions – should be restricted to emerging user groups, should remain temporary and should be appropriately justified.

f/ Upgradability path

In envisioning the regulatory framework for V2X integration, it is imperative to prioritise establishing future-proof systems capable of evolving alongside advancing technologies and changing needs. Although V2X technology is not as yet fully harmonised across Europe and still faces barriers, its early rollout is needed in order to facilitate improvements. Central to this endeavour is the need for an ‘upgradability path’, embedded within the regulatory framework. Such a path will not only instils trust among consumers and markets but also ensure compliance with future technological advancements and emerging requirements.

g/ Public charging hidden potential

In Europe, a significant proportion of the car fleet lacks access to home charging. As a result, publicly available charging will continue to be necessary in the future. This presents an opportunity to leverage V2X technology at these points also. We therefore encourage public charging points to be V2X-capable; this is provided that the cost-benefit analysis is positive, they are priced similarly, only implemented on slow chargers and do not impede the rollout of charging stations across Europe.

3. Barriers to V2X Deployment

Despite the potential offered by V2X integration, several barriers continue to hinder its widespread deployment. Overcoming regulatory, technical and market hurdles will require concerted efforts.

a/ Implementation of the Electricity Market Design

At the forefront of these challenges are regulatory barriers, most notably the lack of implementation by MS of the 2019 Electricity Market Design, which discriminates and disincentivises the participation of V2X in the electricity markets. To address this, there is an urgent need for MS to accelerate their implementation.

b/ Double Taxation

One of the asks of battery stakeholders (EVs and stationary) is to eliminate double taxation; that is, the taxing again of electricity injected into the grid from a battery. Double taxation[i] remains a persistent concern, particularly in scenarios where energy storage is integrated with other loads. While progress has been made in mitigating double taxation for large-scale storage, challenges persist for small-scale storage assets such as V2X. For example, in Germany, double taxation for stationary storage has been removed, yet remains in place for mobile storage.

c/ Uncoordinated grid requirements

The absence of the anticipated regulations, coupled with limited access to organised markets and revenue streams, poses significant challenges to V2X deployment. Uncoordinated grid requirements and standards between countries are exacerbating these challenges, hindering interoperability and complicating cross-border deployment efforts. Divergent communication standards and disparate smart meter adoption rates – something that is particularly evident in countries such as Germany, which has low penetration rates – underscore the urgent need for harmonisation and standardisation initiatives to realise the full potential of V2X integration.

4. Call for coherence, actions and political ownership at EU level

a/ Coherence across Member States

As the EU navigates the complexities of V2X integration, it is vital to address the prevailing divergences among MS and to foster a cohesive regulatory framework that promotes innovation and harmonisation. Despite incremental progress, no MS has successfully removed all barriers to V2X deployment, underscoring the imperative for EU-level intervention. For V2X for slow public charging, we therefore call for national capacity targets – rather an EU-wide one – because the share of cars without access to off-street parking at home differs significantly between MS.

b/ Coherence across EU legislations and regulations

To advance implementation of V2X and harness its manifold advantages within Europe, it is crucial that the newly installed European institutions adopt a holistic approach to this challenge. All V2X-relevant measures should be in the form a comprehensive regulatory framework, rather than addressing them in isolated discussions, or rather than discussion technologies (AC vs DC). One way of ensuring this seamless integration across diverse legislative frameworks – and avoiding a fragmented approach – is to establish political ownership.

c/ Multilevel coherence on V2X

Cities will, in general, be the key enablers and accelerators of V2X due to the alignment between clean air and decarbonisation strategies (such as growing adoption of zero-emission zones, electrification of heating as an alternative to petrol/gas/wood). V2X should therefore be part of an integrated mobility and energy strategy at all territorial levels. We therefore call upon the EU to adapt the proposed SUMPs/SULPs into SUMEPs/SULEPs (Sustainable Urban Logistics/Mobility and Energy Plan). This will ensure coordinated and integrated planning, helping couple mobility/logistics with energy aspects

d/ Double mandate to jumpstart the market.

Mandating V2X interoperability for all bidirectional-capable vehicles, while at the same time requiring V2X capability for public fleets and buildings would be decisive in kickstarting the market and boosting widespread adoption. It would also ensure flexibility for independent aggregators and promote the use of submeters. Requiring interoperability and encouraging public fleets to lead by example will help jumpstart the market.


Additional measures, including addressing communication standards and issuing non-binding guidelines for MS, will be essential for fostering coherence and facilitating the transition towards a sustainable, interoperable V2X ecosystem. With upcoming revisions to key pieces of legislation now on the horizon, it is an opportune moment for the European Commission to demonstrate leadership and to spearhead concerted action to achieving V2X integration goals. By embracing coherence at an EU level, policymakers can unlock the full potential of V2X technologies and accelerate the shift to a smarter, greener future.

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[i] V2X is an EV bidirectional charging technology encompassing several sub technologies: When the vehicle is plugged and electricity automatically flows from the car back to the grid, this is known as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G).  If the charging and discharging of electricity stored in electric vehicles takes place in buildings, this technology is known as Vehicle-to-Building or Vehicle-to-Home (V2B or V2H).

[ii] Notably in the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the Renewable Energy Directive and the Alternative Fuels Infrastructures Regulation

The benefits of bidirectional charging

[i] It has been calculated that V2G can offer 21TWh of upward flexibility, and 24TWh of downward flexibility by 2030, considering 30% of the EVs are charged bidirectionally. Together with other flexibility resources, €11 to €29 billion could be saved in annual savings in distribution grid investments.

Source : https ://smarten.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/SmartEN-DSF-benefits-2030-Report_DIGITAL.pdf

[ii] In a fleet demo in Denmark, a 10-EV fleet engaging in frequency regulation (FCR) services   recorded an average revenue of € 1,860 per car per year[ii]. In a residential V2G project connecting 320 homes in the UK, the V2G units were able to create ‘between £230 and £300 of value per year through the spot electricity market’ and the project team expects that ‘when combined with flexibility services this could grow to £500 per year[ii].’ In the UK, a solution already commercialized proposes the first V2G tariff in the UK where EV drivers would get free charging thanks to their V2G charger and vehicle[ii], providing clear incentives and enhancing the social acceptance of the consumer to opt for bidirectional charging.

Source: https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/publications/case-study-uk-electric-vehicle-grid-v2g-charging

Legislative and Regulatory Principles for V2X Integration

[i] Source: https://smarten.eu/position-paper-why-flexible-consumers-matter-a-contribution-to-eu-elections-2024/, p 9

Barriers to V2X deployment

[i] In fact, battery stakeholders face a triple taxation. Once when the energy is taken from the grid, twice when part of the energy is injected into the grid, and a third time when that electricity is used somewhere else. The electricity injected to the grid should not be taxed when taken by the battery nor when injected back into the grid.