The development of smart charging and bidirectional charging (V2G) in buildings is an opportunity for EV users. It provides a superior charging experience and reduces the consumers’ electricity bill. Indeed, in France, on average with V2G, the annual cost of recharging an electric vehicle is 240€/year, compared to 420€/year without smart charging functionalities.[1] The Commission has recognised, in its AFIR Impact Assessment, that every smart recharging point could on average create a system benefit of more than 100€/year by 2030.[2] Smart charging also reintegrates electricity surpluses into the grids (V2G) and/or reuse it in the buildings (V2B) and homes (V2H), as well as supporting the uptake of electromobility. It can also create synergies with renewable energies, by integrating them into the electricity grids and providing flexibility services to the system. Furthermore, smart charging complements the right-to-plug by ensuring that charging points optimise the use of the grid capacity of a building and removes the argument that grid connections need to be reinforced.


Key recommendations:

  • Ensure that all newly installed chargers in buildings are capable of smart charging.
  • Ensure consistency in the definitions and provisions on smart charging set in the revision of the EPBD with those proposed in the new Regulation on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure – which is replacing the current AFI Directive 2014/94/EU (in Art. 2 and 5) – and in the revision of the Renewable Energy Directive.
  • Ensure the recognition of mobile storage in the European energy framework.
  • Clarify that bidirectional charging (Art. 12. 6) should be encouraged when demonstrating a positive socioeconomic impact and contributing to system efficiency. Co-legislators should also address any remaining barriers for vehicle-to-grid technologies.

[1] [In French] RTE (2019), Report on the development of electromobility.

[2] AFIR Impact Assessment, Annexes, page 86.